Motivating and stimulating employees: why it doesn’t always work

The relevance of the study of work motivation in modern economic conditions.

Work motivation is the process of stimulating an individual performer or a group of people to perform activities aimed at achieving the goals of the organization, to productively carry out decisions made or planned work.
An ineffective motivation system can cause dissatisfaction among employees, which always leads to a decrease in labor productivity. On the other hand, an effective system stimulates personnel productivity, increases the efficiency of human resources, and ensures the achievement of the entire set of system goals.

Consequently, there is a relevance of the issue of studying labor motivation systems used by management in the modern economic conditions of Russia.


Motivation is a person’s conscious urge to be active, purposeful, and solve assigned problems. The desire is internal and manifests itself only when it is fully understood by the subject. Motivation is based on a certain need (physiological, spiritual, value), after which the impulse to action is significantly reduced.

Stimulation is a measure of external support that influences human activity. The main task of such a process is to accelerate management processes, induce the subject to perform the expected action, and change behavior. Incentives can be either positive (reward) or negative (threat of sanctions).

These concepts denote the processes of influencing a person’s personality, through which his behavior is programmed. However, motivation is characteristic of a specific person and is an internally conscious urge to action, while stimulation is an external influence. The distinction is fundamental to a number of sciences, including psychology and marketing. Incentives are a simple form of influencing a person, for example, providing a discount to a client when making a purchase.

To evoke internal motivation in a subject means to penetrate into his soul. Global brands form a special worldview among their customers, thanks to which the purchase of a new product becomes fundamental (remember Apple products, the functions of which practically do not change from model to model, and the army of fans is only growing). Thus, stimulation is just an impact on a person that continues as long as the process is active.

Motivation is an internal process that occurs individually. It will not end until the need is satisfied or replaced by another impulse to action. Incentives can be effective for a whole group of people, for example, employees of an enterprise. Additional incentives (vacation, bonuses) will help them work more actively and better for the benefit of the company. Most often, each person has his own motivation, and it is quite difficult to instill it.

Details about the first concept

Motivation is a person’s internal conscious urge to be active. It is based on some kind of need: physiological, material, spiritual or any other. A person strives to satisfy this need and takes certain actions to achieve this. The difference between motivation and stimulation is that it is always individual and depends on the personality of a particular person.

This is a special internal process that will continue until the need is satisfied. The fundamental differences are considered to be the fading of interest in work after achieving the goal, since the person has already received what he wanted. Everyone can have something different as their motivation. We can say that these are the main goals for the sake of which certain actions are performed.

This is why under no circumstances should motivation be created through coercion. It is important for a manager to be able to properly manage personnel so that each employee performs their functions most effectively. To do this, you need to understand how you can motivate a particular employee. For one, money is important, for another - for a position, for a third - for praise and recognition. The main goal is to interest the employee in the task itself.

If we talk about the work team, here we can highlight a number of motivating factors:

  • sociality (a person’s need to be in a team);
  • self-affirmation (necessary for highly qualified workers);
  • independence (people who are willing to sacrifice a stable job for the sake of their own business);
  • reliability (a motive in which stability is important to a person);
  • acquisition of new things (material goods, knowledge and experience);
  • justice;
  • competitiveness (the desire to be better than others).

There are 2 types of motivational spirit: positive and negative. The first is associated with the expression of good emotions, and the second is associated with the use of judgment and disapproval. With negative motivation, a person’s goal is to get away from failures, otherwise this entails more moral than psychological punishment.

Characteristics and relationship of the main theories of motivation

In addition to the existing variety of concepts of motivation and terms that are indirectly or directly related to it, as a result, various theories of motivation have also been formed in history.

In modern research, theories of the content of motivation and procedural theories of motivation are distinguished.

The first theories focus on analyzing the factors underlying motivation. One of the first researchers of motivation, Charles Barnard, considering the multiplicity of possible types of human satisfaction in an organization, identified specific motives: material, personal, intangible for distinguishing prestige and power, spiritual

But he did not create a theory of motivation. Researchers in the 1950s and 1960s. identified basic needs. At the same time, A. Maslow and K. Alderfer put forward theories of the hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow, needs located at the lower level require primary satisfaction, and the movement of needs goes from bottom to top. Alderfer, unlike Maslow, believes that the movement of needs comes from bottom to top and top to bottom; He called the upward movement through the levels the process of satisfying needs, and the downward movement - frustration - the process of failure in the desire to satisfy the need.

Nevertheless, Abraham Maslow’s famous pyramid of needs is very popular in many areas of scientific knowledge. When Maslow created his theory of motivation in the 1940s, he recognized that people have many different needs. And based on this, Maslow distributed needs as they increase, explaining this construction by the fact that a person cannot experience high-level needs while he needs more primitive things. At the base of the pyramid is physiology. One step higher is the need for security, and above it is the need to belong to a social group. The next step is the need for respect and recognition. And the last step of the pyramid, the highest, is the desire to unlock inner potential (Fig. 1.1).

Rice. 1.1. Hierarchy of needs (Maslow's pyramid)

To meet needs, following Maslow’s Pyramid, based on the scope of work organization, the following stimulation methods can be used:

- lower order good: types of material incentives;

— second level – insurance;

- third level - using types of co-creation, activation of communication;

- fourth level - in the process of attraction to more complex work, delegation of authority, promotion;

- fifth level - involving employees in non-standard activities (writing a company anthem, publishing a collection of creative works by employees, organizing exhibitions of works of art created by employees, and others).

To summarize this theory, it is obvious that in A. Maslow’s concept only primary and secondary needs are reflected, the culturally supra-individual level of development of needs is missed, i.e. spiritual aspirations. The economy, the economy, the very method of production are closely connected with religion. The spiritual and moral foundations of labor and property, prosperity, fair exchange and distribution, and ethical standards of management are sanctified by divine authority and blessing.

In the second half of the 50s, Frederick Herzberg and his colleagues developed another model of motivation based on needs. This group of researchers asked 200 engineers and office workers at a large paint company to answer the following questions: “Can you describe in detail a time when you felt particularly good after performing your job duties?” and “Can you describe in detail when you ate while performing official duties, did you feel particularly bad?” .

According to Herzberg's findings, the responses received can be divided into two broad categories, which he called “hygiene factors” and “motivation” (Table 1.4).

Table 1.4

Motivation and stimulation: concept and functions

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One of the most important categories of organizational behavior is motivation.

Motivation is based on motive - what motivates activity, for the sake of which it is performed.

Currently, the term “motive” is used to define various phenomena and conditions that cause human activity. The motive can be needs, interests, drives, emotions, attitudes, ideals, and values.

The concept of motive is closely related to the concept of the subject of activity.

The primary form of existence of the motive is material objects that meet primary, material needs. Then ideal objects - ideas or conscious goals - “motives-goals” also become motives.

Human activity is stimulated simultaneously by several motives. One of them is the leader, the rest are auxiliary. The peculiarity of the leading motive is that, in addition to the function of motivation and direction, it gives the activity a certain personal meaning.

Motives are in different relationships between themselves and external circumstances: they strengthen or weaken each other, contradict each other and/or the objective possibilities of implementing behavioral acts.

In real activity, motives are often masked (consciously or unconsciously) by motivations - statements that justify a particular action by reference to the objective or subjective circumstances that motivate it. Motivations may not coincide with real motives.

Therefore, motivation, as the process of inducing one to commit certain actions, is a rather complex act. Motivation is complicated by the fact that not all real motives are recognized by the subject at the current moment (when preparing and performing an action - remember the indicative basis of the action). Often the real motive reveals itself after the commission of an act or action.

If a motive is to a greater extent an internal stimulant of human activity, then a stimulus is an external urge, an influence that causes a certain reaction of the body. Stimuli are mediated by the human psyche, his views, feelings, mood, interests, aspirations. In other words, the effect of an external incentive depends on how a person perceives it at a given time.

Accordingly, stimulation is a process in which a person is somehow encouraged to perform certain actions.

In the theory of management and organizational behavior, in contrast to psychology and physiology, the terms “stimulation” and “motivation” are used as synonyms. Although, strictly speaking, this is not the same thing. On the other hand, sometimes incentives and motives may coincide: issuing an advance for a certain job is an incentive that, perceived by a person as a certain part of the future reward, becomes a motive. Nevertheless, let us clarify and define these concepts more clearly.

So, from the point of view of management and organizational behavior, motivation (as well as stimulation) is the process of motivating oneself and members of the organization to desired behavior aimed at achieving personal and/or organizational goals.

By incentives we agree to understand the set of methods and means used by the management of the organization and its divisions to encourage employees to act for the benefit of the organization.

The concept of organizational motivation and stimulation includes not only issues of direct motivation to activity, but also issues of activating desired behavior, its regulation and orientation, as well as explaining the causes and sequences of behavioral acts.

Main functions of motivation and stimulation:

· orientation of members of the organization towards its goals;

· linking the results of the organization’s activities with the needs of people;

· encouraging members of the organization to engage in goal-oriented behavior;

· explanation of the reasons and sequences of people’s actions;

· taking into account and coordinating the impact of external factors and circumstances on members of the organization;

The type of motivation is the predominant focus of human activity on satisfying certain needs. There are quite a lot of typologies of motivation; we will present only one here.

Type 1 – workers who focus primarily on the content and significance of the work performed.

Type 2 – workers focused on wages and other material values.

Type 3 – employees for whom the importance of different values ​​is balanced.

It doesn’t take much research to understand that in modern Russia the vast majority of workers belong to type 2 motivation, i.e. are more focused specifically on material values, and their motivational core is based on high (in their understanding) wages. For teachers, the 1st type of motivation has always been (and in many ways remains) more characteristic and, unfortunately, this fact is exploited with might and main by the authorities... Only in recent years have certain shifts appeared in this process.

Therefore, when considering the material below not only from the point of view of theory, but also from the point of view of future practice, you need to take this factor into account and remember that any methods and means of motivation and stimulation are effective only after a thorough study by the manager of his employees, the relationships between them and their relationships to the organization, its goals and leadership.

Motivation concepts

In this part, we will briefly review the basic concepts of motivation.

The first group is need concepts. They are based on the fact that the leading motivational factor is the satisfaction of certain needs.

The most famous among the need concepts are the theories of A. Maslow, D. McClelland and the so-called “ergonomic” concepts (F. Herzberg and others).

Hierarchical concept of motivation by A. Maslow

Abraham Maslow's concept had a huge influence on the development of management theory and, in particular, the theory of organizational behavior. As psychology and related sciences developed, the wave of criticism against it grew, and new views and approaches to the problem of motivation appeared[9]. But now it has become clear that none of the motivational theories can fully and accurately explain the diversity of manifestations of human behavior and the reasons that motivate a person to act in one way or another.

However, Maslow's concept, like the other theories discussed below, will help to understand what motivates an individual and how this knowledge can be used in organizations. The essence of Maslow's theory - in brief - is as follows.

Maslow defined man as a “desiring creature” who rarely achieves complete satisfaction in anything. If some need is satisfied, then the person’s attention immediately switches to a new desire, a new need. When this one is satisfied, a new one appears, etc. Human life is a continuous and endless chain of emerging desires and needs and actions to satisfy them.

Maslow determined that all personality needs are innate and that they are organized in the form of a certain hierarchy , which is usually depicted as a pyramid (Fig. 7).

Let's consider the needs in the order of their priority (from bottom to top).

Physiological needs . These are the strongest and most urgent needs, the satisfaction of which is vital for a person. These include the needs for: food and drink, oxygen, physical activity, sleep, protection from extreme natural phenomena (heat, frost, wind), sensory stimulation (emotional stress, impressions).

Safety and security needs . In this group, Maslow included the following needs: for organization, stability, law and order, for predictability of events, situations and actions of others, for freedom from the threat of disease, chaos, and fear. These needs reflect a person's interest in long-term survival.

Social communication needs , or the needs of belonging and love. These needs reflect the desire to establish attachment relationships with others, belong to a certain group, communicate, make friends and love, in general, these are the needs for close relationships with other people. Failure to satisfy such needs leads to feelings of loneliness, rejection, uselessness to the world and others, etc.

Rice. 6. Hierarchy of needs according to Maslow.

Esteem and self-esteem needs (status needs). These include needs such as: competence, confidence, achievement, freedom and independence (all of these are self-esteem); prestige, recognition, reputation, status, evaluation and recognition (this is respect from others). Satisfaction of these needs leads to a sense of confidence, dignity and awareness of one's usefulness to the world. And, conversely, their dissatisfaction causes feelings of inferiority, meaninglessness of life, weakness and dependence, and passivity.

Needs for self-expression (self-actualization). According to Maslow, this is a person's desire to become what he has the potential to become. In other words, it is the desire to do what you do in the best possible way and not only for your own benefit, but also for the benefit of others.

Maslow's theory is based on the assumption that lower-level needs must be satisfied to a certain extent before a person becomes aware of and motivated by higher-level needs. That is, a higher-level need must be satisfied before the higher one appears. Satisfying the needs of lower levels makes it possible to recognize higher levels and their participation in motivation.

The location of basic needs in the hierarchy is the main principle underlying the organization of human motivation. Maslow assumed that hierarchy applies to all people and that the higher a person is in the hierarchy, the more individual and developed he is mentally and morally.

Of course, there are people who self-actualize and express themselves despite serious hardships and difficulties. There are also people who are not ready to give up their ideals and values ​​(just remember the history of religions or political struggles).

Finally, there are people who create their own individual hierarchy of needs, putting, for example, work, prestige and career above family and friends, or serving God above everything else (hermits, monks, etc.).

The most important applied aspects of A. Maslow’s theory are as follows:

à to stimulate and effectively motivate an employee, the manager must give him the opportunity to satisfy his most important needs;

à the needs of higher levels can serve as better motivating factors than the needs of lower levels, but insufficient satisfaction of lower (physiological) needs is the main obstacle to metamotivation;

à the system of needs is dynamic: one cannot hope that motivation and incentives that work once will always be effective.

Table 1 summarizes possible methods of motivation and stimulation based on meeting the needs of higher levels.

D. McClelland's theory of needs.

According to it, people have three types of needs: power, success and belonging.

The need for power is the desire to influence others. People with a developed need for power are energetic, not afraid of confrontation, and strive to defend their principles and ideas. The need for power and motivation associated with its satisfaction are the basis of such a phenomenon of organizational behavior and management as leadership.

The need for success is the desire to bring work to successful completion. In modern theory of organizational behavior, the need for success is closely related to the concept of achievement motive. The achievement motive is a characteristic of the motivational sphere of the individual, reflecting the desire for the best performance of activities in achievement situations. These situations are characterized by the presence of two conditions: a task and quality standards for its implementation.

The achievement motive is based on the desire to satisfy certain social needs associated with achieving success and avoiding failure when performing a task. The desire to achieve success is manifested in proactive behavior, competition and reasonable risk, the desire to avoid failure - in avoidance of action, caution, and reluctance to damage one’s prestige.

Table 1. Basic methods of satisfying the needs of higher levels (according to Maslow)

Needs groupMethods of satisfaction (main incentives)
Social and communication· Creating and maintaining team spirit · Regular meetings · Encouraging the emergence of informal groups (if they do not cause real and not imaginary damage to the organization) · Creating conditions for social activity of employees outside and within the organization · Organizing work that allows employees to communicate
Esteem needs· Providing positive feedback on the results obtained · Positive assessment and encouragement of achieved results · Involving subordinates in setting goals and making decisions · Delegating additional powers and rights to subordinates · Career advancement of employees · Providing training and professional development for employees · Offering subordinates more meaningful work
Need for self-expression· Offering important work that requires full commitment · Encouraging and developing creativity · Maximum consideration in the types and complexity of work of the personal characteristics and skill level of workers · Providing opportunities for training and development to enable full use of potential

Stimulating the employee in this case will consist in identifying such methods of inducing activity that would maximize the desire for success and minimize the possibility of frustration in the event of failure.

The need for belonging is similar to Maslow's group of social-communication needs. McClelland understands it as an interest in the company of acquaintances, friendship, and helping others. People with a developed need for affiliation are attracted to working in groups, with wide opportunities for interpersonal contacts and communication, and the best incentives for them will be the assignment to perform work in groups.

Ergonomic concepts of motivation.

In studies of the late 1960s by a number of American scientists studying the problems of needs and motivation (F. Herzberg, R. Likert, the Tavistock group), it was noted that money or the desire for power cannot be considered as a constantly acting motivating factor, since people work for money only up to a certain limit, the boundaries of which are subjective ideas about a “decent life”.

F. Herzberg divided all motivating factors into two groups. The first group is hygiene factors , which included: payment, working conditions, manager qualities, management technologies. He also called them “negative incentives,” meaning the following: satisfying the needs of this group will only relieve displeasure, but will not in any way stimulate workers to work effectively. In other words, a decent salary, working conditions, good management are not motivators of activity, but the minimum necessary conditions under which an employee will fulfill his duties. On the other hand, these are incentives that encourage a person to perform work at a minimum acceptable level ( here it is appropriate to recall the well-known saying from the times of developed socialism: “If the bosses think that they are paying me, then let them think that I am working”


The second group is incentives (or positive incentives). Herzberg listed these as: achievement, recognition, choice, career. Using these factors creates job satisfaction.

Taking into account Herzberg's theory (with additions from research materials from the Tavistock Institute group), we present a table in which the general psychological requirements for work are grouped.

Table 2. General psychological requirements for work

The content of the workWorking conditions
1. The content of the work must require reasonable effort to complete it1. Minimum degree of social support and recognition in the workplace
2. Provide variety and choice in work (methods, means)2. The employee must connect activities at work with social and personal life
3. Providing learning opportunities at work3. Work should lead to future fulfillment of desires

The second group of concepts considers motivation not only as a function of needs. Factors that determine behavior include perception, expectation, and consequences of the chosen type of behavior. The most popular concepts of this group are the instrumental model of V. Vroom, the Porter-Lawler model, the theory of justice, etc. Without going into a detailed description of the models, we will only note the applied aspects of these concepts.

The applied significance of V. Vroom’s instrumental theory of motivation is as follows:

· People perceive and value specific rewards differently and they must be compared and aligned with needs and expectations. For one employee, the best reward for the same work will be public recognition and praise, for another - a bonus, for a third - promotion. Even for the same employee, the same reward can have different motivating effects depending on the situation.

· Effective motivation according to Vroom also involves establishing a solid relationship between the achieved result and the reward. Effective work - high results with a minimum of effort - implies higher rewards. From this point of view, it is completely ineffective to reward only on the basis of effort expended.

· Goals-results of the 1st level (organizational) should be high, but realistically achievable. One of the methods of motivation here is to convince employees that they can achieve their goals if they put in some effort. If management, without taking into account factors of the external and internal environment, sets “global” goals for staff, then expectations regarding labor costs and results will be very low, and accordingly, there will be very little motivation.

The Porter-Lawler model also takes into account factors such as attitudes and value orientations - motivation based on certain life principles and moral and ethical standards and values ​​is no less important than motivation based on material incentives.

Basic forms and methods of incentives in educational organizations

In conclusion, we present a summary table (Table 3) of the most common forms of incentives.

Table 3. Main methods and forms of incentives for employees of educational organizations

GroupBasic forms and methods of stimulation
Financial incentives¨ Salary ¨ Various bonus systems ¨ Bonuses at the end of the year ¨ Participation in income from extra-budgetary activities ¨ Additional payment plans (agency, commissions) for the provision of paid educational services ¨ Benefits and compensation (payment for training, treatment, travel, etc.) ¨ Insurance ¨ Concessional lending ¨ Fair distribution of payroll (organizational incentive
Promoting responsibility and reliability¨ Explanation of all aspects of the organization's policies and especially change and innovation ¨ High appreciation of loyalty, length of service, etc. ¨ Providing quick access to the manager ¨ Providing the best conditions (computers, offices, etc.) ¨ Delegation of authority ¨ Career advancement
Promoting professionalism and professional pride¨ Referral to training, advanced training ¨ Career growth ¨ Providing an opportunity to prove oneself in new tasks ¨ Differentiation of work taking into account the professional qualities of employees ¨ Providing subscriptions to professional periodicals and literature ¨ Elevating young professionals to the rank of mentor ¨ Encouraging reasonable initiative ¨ Providing knowledge about the organization (history, prestige, place in the educational market, prospects) ¨ Creating an atmosphere of mutual trust, respect and support ¨ Development of a corporate image (coat of arms, flag, anthem) and the formation of an appropriate attitude towards it ¨ Formation and implementation of a clear and understandable ideology of the organization
Stimulating competition and competitiveness¨ Use of rating systems ¨ Tangible prizes ¨ Public summing up of the competition results
Incentives based on recognition¨ Presentation of various insignia (certificates, badges, etc.) ¨ Public incentives ¨ Assignment of honorary titles, titles ¨ Admission of an employee to the “club” (the best...) ¨ Evaluation of work ¨ Granting access to previously inaccessible benefits (special dining room or parking , car, etc.)
Compensatory incentives (sanctions)¨ Material incentives (reduction of payments or deprivation of them - in any form, except for wages specified in the contract) ¨ Non-material incentives - all of the above, with the prefix non- (provided that the employee expects just such a positive incentive) ¨ Penalties (reprimands, censures) , warnings, etc. in various forms - from public, oral to written and “tête-á-tête” ¨ Silencing and ignoring

It should be noted that:

1) this is not a complete list of methods;

2) some methods and forms of stimulation “intersect” and are, as it were, interdependent;

3) most non-material incentives turn out to be more effective when “accompanied” by material ones;

4) many methods and forms of stimulation are assigned to one group or another rather arbitrarily;

5) different people are rewarded differently, it depends on the type of motivation, on the dominant group of needs, on expectations, etc. As noted above, what is an encouragement for one may look like a punishment for another.

Topic 9. Control and efficiency of management of an educational organization

General approaches to assessing the effectiveness of an educational organization

The effectiveness of the functioning of an educational organization depends on the mechanism and quality of feedback.

Management of an educational organization means the influence of managers on participants in the educational process in order to achieve the planned result. The object of management in this case is educational processes and the programmatic, methodological, personnel, material, technical, and regulatory conditions that support them, and the goal is the effective use of the potential available in the educational system and increasing its efficiency. The effectiveness of management of an educational organization is largely determined by the presence of a systematic approach to the management of all its links. It is very important to be able to see the prospects for the development of an organization and build program activities based on the creative potential of the teaching staff.

The effectiveness of managing an educational organization is the result of achieving the goals of management activities, and the effectiveness of managing an educational organization is the result of achieving its goals. If the desired properties of the result are achieved quickly and with saving resources, it is legitimate to talk about effective management.

The effectiveness of the management system, and, consequently, the life of the organization as a whole depends on how completely, expediently, realistically and specifically the functional and job responsibilities are distributed between managers.

Assessing the effectiveness of successful management is an important and at the same time little-studied and controversial problem.

On the one side

, it is possible to assess the effectiveness of management based on the indicators of management itself, i.e. according to assessments of the quality of implementation of pedagogical analysis, planning, organization, control and regulation, regardless of the final results of the organization’s activities as a system or individual subsystems.

On the other hand

, management is not an end in itself, and its effectiveness should be assessed by the dynamics of pedagogical processes and how the ongoing transformations influence the development of the personality of each student and student.

Increasing the efficiency of management of an educational organization must begin with the creation or transformation of an information support system. Managers must have a mandatory amount of information about the state and development of those processes in the subsystems for which they are responsible and on which they are called upon to exert managerial influence.

Efficiency characterizes the degree of success of the functioning of the pedagogical system in achieving the goal. Since the goals can be different (didactic, educational, educational, managerial), there are corresponding components of pedagogical effectiveness, which, in turn, are functions of two variables - the costs (labor, time, material resources) of participants in the educational process and the results of teaching activities reflected in certain indicators that characterize the state of the object of pedagogical activity.

The results of pedagogical activity are reflected in certain indicators that characterize the state of the object of pedagogical activity.

To effectively manage an educational organization, managers need to know what the criteria for its success are or, conversely, what causes the problems, and monitor the dynamics according to these criteria, analyzing the results and adjusting the management style. The correct choice of performance criteria is the most important requirement, since incorrectly selected indicators do not allow achieving the results defined by the goal.

One of the options for a group of criteria for the activities of an educational organization in relation to secondary education (Zelentsova E.V.) is given below.

This approach includes four groups of criteria, specified in their most important indicators and indicators (features).

1) Quality criteria for the results of the educational process

Criterion for sociocultural development of students:

§ school and extracurricular success (academic performance, level of training, victories at competitions, competitiveness when entering a university, readiness to continue education);

§ orientation to true values;

§ culture of communication and behavior;

§ social adaptation.

Criterion for mental development of schoolchildren:

§ features of the cognitive sphere (level of intelligence, features of cognitive processes, mental performance);

§ personal characteristics (learning and school motivation, characteristics of self-awareness).

Criterion for physical development of schoolchildren:

§ health status (compliance of physical development indicators with age standards, health index, morbidity, fatigue);

§ focus on a healthy lifestyle (negative attitude towards bad habits)

2) Criteria for the effectiveness of the educational process

§ Contents of basic and additional education.

§ Availability and nature of educational and health-saving technologies used.

§ Content, organization and forms of extracurricular educational work

§ Organization of the educational process (shifts of classes, class sizes, schedule features)

3) Criteria for the effectiveness of the conditions created at school

§ Educational and methodological support (availability of modern textbooks, didactic materials, informatization of the educational process).

§ Quality of personnel (staffing, qualifications of personnel, their innovativeness, availability of medical workers and psychologists, psychological climate in the team).

§ Material and technical equipment (quantity and quality of computers, demonstration equipment, technical equipment, sports equipment, functional equipment).

§ Sanitary and hygienic conditions (quality of food, medical care, compliance with SanPiNov requirements).

4) School prestige criteria

§ Social status of the school (type of school, its place in the microsociety, admission conditions, student population)

§ Satisfaction of students and their parents with the quality of education provided by the school (effectiveness of the educational process, created conditions, educational results)

Assessment of management effectiveness according to selected indicators is carried out on the basis of comparison of the assessed parameter with a certain standard (standard).

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Why do you need motivation?

The system of motives is an integral feature of the individual. This is one of the factors that shapes uniqueness. Motivation is related to our mental characteristics (for example, choleric people need to move a lot, get as many different impressions as possible) and physical condition (when we are sick, we want almost nothing). This is not by chance by nature.

The meaning of everyone’s life is to live it according to their own scenario in order to realize their own goals and purpose. This is why each person strives for a unique set of values, actions and experiences. This does not mean that everything we want is certainly good, and what we don’t want is destructive and bad.

Unformed motivation is common, and you will definitely have to work on it so that a person can overcome obstacles, including laziness, and realize that he is successful. But it’s worth listening to motives, desires, and interests in order to learn and develop yourself.

It is not for nothing that people who very strongly desire something achieve greater results than others, all other things being equal. As the people say, “God gives angels to those who strive.”

You can and should manage your aspirations. If development stands still, impressive results can be achieved.

Stay with us and you will find many more useful things. And may everything you do bring joy!

It is impossible to achieve high results in any work if a person does not have personal interest. After all, it is impossible to build interaction solely on the principles of coercion: the effect will be neutralized at lightning speed. There are two ways to create a desire to work – motivation and stimulation. Despite the apparent identity, the concepts have a number of differences from each other. Understanding the difference will help managers and leaders cope more effectively with their tasks, even without a large number of resources in their arsenal.


- this is a person’s conscious impulse to activity, purposeful action, and solution of assigned tasks.
The desire is internal and manifests itself only when it is fully understood by the subject. Motivation is based on a certain need (physiological, spiritual, value), after which the impulse to action is significantly reduced. Stimulation
is a measure of external support that influences human activity. The main task of such a process is to accelerate management processes, induce the subject to perform the expected action, and change behavior. Incentives can be either positive (reward) or negative (threat of sanctions).

Details about the second concept

Stimulation is understood as external influence on a person so that he successfully completes a particular task. This is direct or indirect coercion to perform a certain action. The incentive can be either positive (for example, some kind of reward) or negative (the threat of sanctions).

To stimulate staff, there is no need for an in-depth study of each employee individually, since it can be applied to a group of people. For example, an incentive can be material reward for work done, receiving a certificate, or punishment for late completion of a task. It must be remembered that the same incentives do not always have the same effect on all employees, and therefore can produce completely different impressions on people.

Analyzing the same work environment, we can identify the main types of positive incentives at work:

  • material goods;
  • social opportunities (career growth, prestige, image);
  • spiritual benefits (certificates, various awards, respect);
  • creative opportunities (improvement and self-development);
  • other incentives (travel, treatment).

Based on this, it becomes clear that not every external influence can be called a stimulus. It must have a motivating effect and be consistent with the concepts, principles and motives of a person. After receiving some stimulus from the outside, people pass it through their psyche and compare it with their needs, interests and capabilities. An important difference between incentive and motivation is that the former usually does not stop once the goal is achieved. The more adequate the external impulse is, the smaller the differences between them and internal motivation, the more successful the result will be.

Why stimulation doesn't work

Firstly, due to the employee’s lack of internal and/or external motives that could motivate him to work.

Secondly, the stimulation may not have worked, since the incentive that you, as the boss, offered is diametrically opposed to the motives that the employee follows when performing a particular task. So, for example, an employee did not want to be on the honor roll - he was much more interested in a cash bonus.

In addition, you should pay special attention to the system of distribution of bonuses and cash incentives: it is likely that you are not entirely fair in this. An employee may wonder why he receives the same bonus as a colleague who works far fewer hours or is not doing his job conscientiously

Among other things, it is worth noting that incentives to work have a short-term effect, because very soon employees may get used to the incentives and do their work with less zeal. Your task at the moment of stimulation

– understand the internal and external motives of your employees, so that in the future, motivation and stimulation of work are combined and represent a common harmonious process.

Stimulate staff work

- not an easy task. However, you should study human psychology, in particular, your subordinates, in order to have an idea of ​​what will help improve the work process and how best to do it. If you can find a competent and correct approach to your employees, very soon you will see that work efficiency has increased and you will be pleased with the results.

In this article we will look at how motivation differs from stimulation. In order for economic entities to function in a market economy, it is necessary to strengthen the phenomena under consideration.

How can you motivate employees?

Experts identify several needs among employees, which can be divided into 3 groups:

  1. Social needs. We offer the following options:
  • Improve communication between subordinates. Imagine a job that requires teamwork and communication.
  • The importance of team spirit. Try to create it in your workplace and maintain it from time to time.
  • Keep in touch. Don't ignore your employees. Successful businessmen listen to the opinions of their subordinates, listen to new ideas and regularly hold team meetings.
  • Informal groups. If you notice the presence of informal groups in your team, you should not destroy them. You can only intervene if there is a real risk of harm to you or the company.
  • Create conditions and opportunities so that your employees have the opportunity to communicate outside of work hours and want to do so.
  1. Esteem needs. It is also important that you are treated with respect. This way they will look up to you and consider you an example.
  • Focus on more meaningful work. Offer this opportunity to your subordinates.
  • If possible, make sure that not only you, but also the employee reaps the fruits of his labors.
  • Incentives. Pay attention to any achievements of your employees. In addition to approving words, use monetary rewards.
  • Allow your people to speak out and develop their own opinions. Involve them in solving a complex problem where everyone's thoughts and ideas are valued.
  • Delegate your rights. This way, your employees will appreciate your trust, and you will save valuable time.
  • Celebrate the growth of your employees. If you notice that they are doing well in business, bringing the right ideas and increasing your profits, reward them with a new job title. This will give you an incentive to improve even more.
  • Regularly arrange trainings and consultations. You must train and encourage people to constantly improve their skills.
  1. The need for self-expression. Your subordinates are comfortable in society, and they respect you as a boss. But this is not enough, because self-expression is also important.
  • Maximize their potential. To do this, provide the opportunity to learn and realize your talents.
  • Don't give employees basic or routine work. Provide opportunities to engage in challenging tasks that require extreme focus and dedication.
  • Possibility of creativity. It is important that your people not only open up at work, but also realize their creative abilities.

What are these concepts?

First of all, it is necessary to understand the meanings of these concepts. What is motivation? You yourself feel the desire, enthusiasm and excitement to achieve your goals and objectives. This is an internal desire that arises when a person fully understands it.

What is the basis? You experience a physiological or psychological need. As soon as you satisfy it, the impulse begins to rapidly fade away.

Stimulation comes not from within, but from without. You receive external support that activates your enthusiasm.

The goal is to speed up management processes. By nature, it can be positive (for example, issuing bonuses or other monetary rewards) and negative (threat of dismissal or application of fines).

Concepts for employees

The essence of motivation and stimulation is clear; it is worth considering how they can be influenced in a work team. When creating your system, you need to take into account the composition of the employees, because their characteristics and differences will be visible depending on the gender, age, education of employees and many other factors. In addition, when coming up with new motives, you need to take into account the presence of existing ones.

First of all, it is necessary to determine the main goals. Based on the goals, they build motives and select a number of incentives to achieve them. It is necessary to prevent the development of demotivation in the team - a phenomenon that is essentially the opposite of motivation. It manifests itself in decreased performance, loss of interest, lack of activity and indifference to work. What could be the reason for this? Most likely, the matter is in the relations of management with subordinates, colleagues among themselves, or, possibly, in working conditions.

In turn, the main reasons for the ineffectiveness of incentives may lie in their incorrect selection

It is necessary to pay attention to the differences between employees based on their motives. In some cases, employees may become accustomed to various types of rewards and take them for granted.

That is why the fundamental difference is the short duration of the motivation effect.

Thus, this is the main internal factor that determines the direction of human activity. That is why one of the main functions of management is to motivate its employees. And to more effectively achieve goals, internal motivations are reinforced by external influences - incentives.

Every person faces such a phenomenon as success. How to achieve it and achieve high results in the shortest possible time? Motivation and stimulation will help with this.

Only interest in the matter and confidence in your success will help you achieve your desired goal. Some employers use only coercion. But after a while they will achieve the opposite effect. Motivation and stimulation have a number of significant differences, despite their apparent similarity. By understanding the difference, you can solve problems more effectively.

Is there a difference?

Both of these concepts affect our personality, formulating certain patterns of behavior. There is a difference between them. Stimulation is an external phenomenon, while motivation is an internal and conscious urge of a person.

The difference between them is striking for many sciences, especially marketing and psychology. If stimulation can be classified as simple motivation and influence (for example, providing a discount to a buyer), then this is not enough for motivation. It must appeal to the soul. Marketers often use these techniques.

Global brands create a special atmosphere and worldview, encouraging people to buy their collection. For example, thanks to Steve Jobs we learned about the famous iPhones. Every year the number of admirers and supporters of these products is growing, although the release of new models is practically no different from the old ones.

Motivation is, first of all, not mass, but individual. You will not get rid of it until you achieve your desired goal. Or it will end when you reconsider your needs and replace them with some others.

Incentives are more targeted at mass participation, which makes them effective in a work environment. Employees will work much more actively and with greater interest if additional incentives are provided, be it a bonus or paid leave.

Basic principles of employee incentives

For incentives to be effective and efficient, the manager must adhere to a number of specific incentive principles:

1. Availability

— incentives should apply to all employees, everyone should have access to them.

2. Gradualism

— remuneration should be increased gradually, smoothly, so that the employee does not receive an unreasonably large reward at once.

3. Tangibility

— the incentive must be meaningful and tangible for the employee.

4. Combination of material and non-material incentives

— it is necessary not only to issue bonuses, but also to praise employees for their hard work and professionalism.

5. Minimizing the gap between labor results and remuneration for it

. The sooner an employee receives money for his work, the better. This way he will clearly understand the relationship between his work and its reward.

6. Carrot and stick policy.

In addition to incentives, in some cases it is appropriate to use anti-incentives. Not only bonuses for exceeding the plan, but also fines for failure to fulfill it.

What's interesting is that incentives don't always work. It happens that despite all the efforts of a manager to stimulate employees, the effect of his actions is zero. Here are just a few possible reasons why incentives aren't working:

1. Lack of motivation.

If an employee is not motivated to achieve results, no incentives will make him work faster and better.

2. Discrepancy between the incentive and the employee’s needs.

For example, an employee is absolutely not ambitious and does not care whether he gets on the honor roll or not. At the same time, he would be glad to see an increase in wages. But the manager only talks about the competition for the best employee of the month and not a word about the bonus...

3. Addiction

. If bonuses are given frequently and regularly, employees will soon get used to them. The bonus is no longer perceived as an incentive, but is considered as a granted additional payment.

4. Lack of clarity about the incentive system.

If employees do not clearly understand for what indicators they are incentivized and how the same bonus is calculated, the incentives will be of little use. Discontent will begin in the team - everyone will think that they work the same or more than their colleagues, but receive less.

Staff incentives

is a process that does not require deep knowledge of psychology and careful study of its employees. Thus, in this case, the impact on the employee occurs through external influence. What is incentive?

Labor stimulation helps in organizing work. For example, if you need an employee to stay overtime or go on a business trip, then you can offer additional nice bonuses: extra pay, another day off, and the like.

You should understand that if an employee is not interested in work, he will do everything to avoid it and not do it. Especially if he lacks internal and external motivation. This is where you need work stimulation - it will help the boss involve the employee in the work process, making it more exciting and attractive.

If you set a specific goal for an employee - for example, he needs to complete some work within the given deadline, then this can and should also be encouraged. It is worth noting that encouragement can be not only material: for example, you can promise to hang the employee’s portrait on the honor board, make him the best employee of the month, or present him with a badge of honor. Choose an incentive option based on the priorities and direction of your company.

You can also stimulate the work of your staff by paying them a bonus or advance payment in advance. However, it is worth considering that such a step may not work - after all, some people may relax and do nothing at all.

The importance and place of labor activity stimulation in the personnel management system.

Labor stimulation is, first of all, an external motivation, an element of the work situation that influences human behavior in the world of work, the material shell of personnel motivation. At the same time, it carries an intangible load that allows the employee to realize himself as a person and as an employee at the same time. Stimulation performs economic, social and moral functions.

The economic function is expressed in the fact that labor stimulation helps to increase production efficiency, which is expressed in increased labor productivity and product quality.

The moral function is determined by the fact that incentives to work form an active life position and a highly moral climate in society

At the same time, it is important to ensure a correct and justified system of incentives, taking into account tradition and historical experience

The social function is ensured by the formation of the social structure of society through different levels of income, which largely depends on the impact of incentives on different people. In addition, the formation of needs, and ultimately the development of personality, is predetermined by the formation and stimulation of labor in society.

An incentive is often characterized as an external influence on an employee (from the outside) in order to encourage him to perform effectively. There is a certain dualism inherent in the stimulus. The dualism of the incentive is that on the one hand, from the position of the enterprise administration, it is a tool for achieving a goal (increasing the productivity of workers, the quality of the work they perform, etc.), on the other hand, from the position of the employee, the incentive is an opportunity to obtain additional benefits (positive incentive) or the possibility of their loss (negative incentive). In this regard, we can distinguish between positive stimulation (the possibility of possessing something, achieving something) and negative stimulation (the possibility of losing some item of need).

When incentives pass through the psyche and consciousness of people and are transformed by them, they become internal incentives or motives for the employee’s behavior. Motives are conscious incentives. Stimulus and motive do not always agree with each other, but there is no “Chinese wall” between them. These are two sides, two systems of influencing an employee, encouraging him to take certain actions. Therefore, the stimulating effect on personnel is aimed primarily at enhancing the functioning of the enterprise’s employees, and the motivating effect is aimed at enhancing the professional and personal development of employees. In practice, it is necessary to use mechanisms for combining motives and incentives for work

But it is important to distinguish between the stimulation and motivational mechanisms of behavior between employees and enterprise management, to realize the importance of their interaction and mutual enrichment

Hello dear readers. Sometimes awareness of certain points helps people to be successful and happy. You can look at your friends, colleagues, relatives and only envy how they reach such heights, where they get their motivation, how strong their willpower and self-confidence are.

What is the secret of these people? In today's article we will try to find out. You will learn the difference between stimulation and motivation, what results psychologists have achieved in their research on these issues, how to help yourself or your staff work more effectively, and much more, so sit back, let's begin.

Material incentive system

Its main component is the wage system, which is carried out in the form of time-based or piecework. In government agencies, time-based payment is mainly common, in which it is determined by the amount of time worked by the employee, taking into account his qualifications and working conditions. In the piecework form, payment is made depending on the results achieved.

In addition, material incentives for personnel include irregular additional payments, bonuses, bonuses, various percentages, allowances and additional payments.

Most employees are focused specifically on these stimulation methods. However, as already noted, when a good is achieved, it ceases to be an incentive, therefore it is necessary to combine methods of material and non-material stimulation and motivation.

Principles of employee incentives

If a company begins to stimulate employees, then it must be remembered that an incentive applied once will give the same one-time result. Unsystematic incentives for staff will also not bring the required benefits.

For incentives to work and have a tangible effect, it is important to follow the basic principles:

  1. Stimulation should increase over time, gradually. A large number of preferences provided at once are depreciated because the employee did not make any effort to obtain them.
  2. The incentives used must be tangible and the employee must receive some benefit or experience the impact of the incentive, for example, when penalties are applied. If an employee’s salary is more than 50,000 rubles per month, and the fine for being late is 5 rubles for one delay, we can confidently say that the employee will continue to be late. The deduction amount of 105 rubles per month is not tangible for him.
  3. Combine material and non-material incentives. Employees should equally value financial rewards and managerial praise.
  4. Timeliness of incentives. If a large amount of time passes between the result for which reward should follow and the reward itself, the achievement is devalued.
  5. The relationship between incentive and motivation. The incentive must fall into the employee’s motivational coordinate system. If quiet work and clear job responsibilities are important to a person, and he is offered promotion and transfer to subordinate employees, then it is unlikely that such an appointment will motivate him to work further.

The main difference between motivation and incentives in management

Stimulation and motivation are fundamentally different. The essence of this difference is that incentives are used as one of the motivating means. So it can include activities aimed at material and non-material motivation.

Stimulation works on the “here and now” principle. The same cannot be said about motivation - it is valid for a long time. We feel it until the urgency of the need ceases.

If you hold a leadership position, then you are probably interested in how you can inspire employees to achieve accomplishments. What is the difference between stimulation and motivation? Motivation and stimulation of work - what is it? We'll figure out.

Types of motivation

Like any complex phenomenon, motivation differs for various reasons:

According to the source of motives.

Extreme (external)

– a group of motives based on external incentives, circumstances, conditions (work to get paid).

Intrinsic (internal)

– a group of motives based on a person’s internal needs and interests (to work because he likes the work). Everything internal is perceived by a person as an “impulse of the soul,” because it comes from his personal characteristics: character, inclinations, etc.

Based on the results of actions.


– a person’s desire to do something in the hope of positive reinforcement (overwork in order to get time off).


– setting to perform an action in order to avoid negative consequences (arrive at work on time so as not to pay a fine).

In terms of stability.


– works for a long time, does not need additional reinforcement (an avid hiker conquers the trails again and again, without fear of difficulties).


– needs additional reinforcement (the desire to learn may be strong and conscious in one person, weak and hesitant in another).

By coverage.

In team management there is a distinction between personal


How is motivation different from stimulation: main differences

Good day, dear readers. Today I decided to touch on a topic that I think bothers many. After all, we so often set ourselves a task, and then all the motives and incentives suddenly disappear. Then we have thousands of excuses for not fulfilling it.

But what happens to us at this moment? How to explain the lack of desire to go towards this or that goal? How is motivation different from stimulation and what is the connection between them? Why is it so easy to get confused about the meaning of these concepts? In this article I will try to answer all these questions.

Every action is performed for some reason and has a motivation. This means that the individual acts consciously, he has the intention to achieve goals and find a way out of difficult situations.

He takes active steps only when he fully understands what he needs. An inner desire motivates him to commit an act. If actions are motivated, a person is controlled by need.

It is worth noting that there are situations when people need to do things that they do not need to do. Then, accordingly, neither the result of such actions nor the actions themselves bring the expected results. In such cases, different motivation methods are used.

There are 3 groups of methods:

  • Social, which are divided into professional, material and moral.
  • For training (simulation of situations for schoolchildren and students).
  • Self-motivation.

The term “motivation” was first used by A. Schopenhauer in one of his many works. In the modern world, this phenomenon remains among the pressing problems for such industries as:

  • pedagogy;
  • psychology;
  • sociology;
  • philosophy.

So, all the actions of an individual are conscious, since he has incentives to perform them. That is, he is interested in achieving his goal.

You can read more about motivation in the article: “What is positive motivation and how it will move mountains for you.”

Incentive concept

Stimulation is the influence on a subject from the outside. This is a strong factor that pushes you to commit actions.

It can be not only external, but also internal. This is a kind of lever that sets motivation in motion.

Stimuli for people most often are individual objects, the actions of others, opportunities provided, etc.

It is also important to know that a person can respond to a stimulus consciously or unconsciously.

What is the difference between motivation and stimulation

At first glance, the phenomena under consideration are very similar. But where is the line of difference? And why is it so important not to confuse them? Let's analyze together everything we know at the moment.

Firstly, both are processes that influence the behavior of an individual.

Secondly, incentives are an easier way to push a person to action. The incentive usually comes from the performer himself.

Thirdly, motivation is a system of incentives in response to which a person acts.

Stimulation is also different in that it works in the here and now. And depending on the type, we can feel motivation for a long time. It is relevant until the need is satisfied.

Motives are individual, unlike incentives. But incentives can be used to influence a group of people with common interests and status. For example, these are bonuses and incentives in the workforce.

5 criteria for distinguishing between incentive and motive

To summarize, I would like to note 5 main criteria by which I differentiated the meanings of the two concepts discussed above.

I decided to make a table to make it easier for you, the readers, to track the differences.

AffiliationCertain personalityA group of people united by a common characteristic
Only positive, since in most cases it is determined by the individual himselfBoth positive and negative
FocusThe performer is interested in performing the actionMost often this is influence from the surrounding world
TargetSatisfy a desire and/or needInfluence method
ExistenceUsed until the target is reachedValid until canceled

Types of staff motivation

There are many theories of personnel motivation, but only three are the most famous and recommended.

Taylor theory

According to this theory, workers are driven solely by physiological needs and instincts. How to increase labor productivity in this case?

  1. Pay for work on an hourly basis.
  2. Coercion from the management side.
  3. Clear instructions and rules that outline the norms and procedures for behavior in the workplace.

Abraham Maslow's theory

The scientist was guided by the hierarchy of human needs. The employee moves along this pyramid from lowest to highest. Maslow identified the following steps:

Physiological. They are basic and represent the needs for food, water and shelter. Safety

It is important for a person to feel safe and have stability in life and at work. Love. Society's acceptance plays a big role. Confession

A person seeks approval of his actions from other people. Self-realization, which is the top of the hierarchy of needs.

Herzberg's theory

According to this theory, employee behavior directly depends on external conditions (this can be monetary incentives) and on the content of work (the feeling of satisfaction from the work done). Herzberg argued that these are the most effective types of motivation.

To conclude, we can say that there are 2 types of motivations:

  1. Material (everything related to employee enrichment, be it commissions or bonuses).
  2. Intangible. This may include personal transport, free lunches, and various status elements.

Work motivation

The combination of motives creates certain types of work motivation of employees. In relation to the materiality of values ​​that an employee would like to receive as a result of his work, three types of motivation are distinguished.

Focus on material values. Employees with this type of motivation are focused on the amount of wages, the availability of additional payments and bonuses, the provision of compensation, and benefits. If there are changes in the company that result in a decrease in income or changes in benefits and compensation, the employee's performance may decrease. Focus on intangible values

For employees with this type of motivation, the very content of work tasks, their level of complexity, and the value of the result for the entire company are especially important. It is important for them to receive feedback on the results of their work and to receive an assessment of professionalism. A mixed type, in which both material values ​​and intangible benefits are equally important to a specialist.

Based on their focus on achieving results, there are two types of work motivation that divide all employees into two categories: those who are aimed at achieving results and those who strive to avoid failure.

  1. Achieving success. These specialists are ready to solve problems and take responsibility. The fact of getting results and achieving success is important to them. If they cannot show successful results for a long time, they lose interest in what they are doing.
  2. Avoiding failure. These specialists do everything to make tasks either easier or within their capabilities. Failure avoiders are not ready to accept responsibility and are always afraid of making mistakes in their work.

Motive and motivation: what are the differences and similarities

To understand whether the concepts of “motive” and “motivation” are identical, you need to familiarize yourself with the psychology of personality

It is important to identify the differences and similarities between these definitions

Motive is an internal engine that forces a person to perform certain actions. It is based on needs: security and material well-being, social recognition or self-expression. While the need is relevant, the person is trying to achieve the desired goal. If it is realized, then the level of activity of the individual decreases sharply or the movement stops completely until the moment the need is actualized again.

Motivation is a complex of factors that activates a person’s movement towards the fulfillment of a need, or the process of motivation itself.

When hiring staff, you can often hear candidates express their own motivation for joining the company, for example:

  • “motivation is to earn enough money to ensure that my children attend private school”;
  • “I want to work in a company because I can develop professionally in it and further make a career in my specialty”;
  • “You need a job to earn money and open your own business.”

In each formulation there is a direction towards the goal (motivation), and in fact the need itself that must be satisfied (motive).

How to motivate yourself and others

If you want to work on motivating yourself and becoming a little more productive, I can recommend a great book that became an instant bestseller. Some large firms won't even hire anyone who hasn't read Stephen Covey's The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. She tells you how to formulate goals, achieve them, and become better every day.

Another popular book about working on yourself is “The Psychology of Champions” by Bob Rotella. This is a set of rules that helps you form the right attitude towards work, learn to be inspired by it and work with incentives yourself.

If you want to work on employee motivation, then it is better to read “A New Look at Employee Motivation” by Susan Fowler. For more than 10 years, she studied the work of people around the world and answered many important questions: how best to motivate, where energy comes from, how to reclassify imposed demands into personal responsibility.

That's all. Don't forget to subscribe to the newsletter. Until next time.

Non-material motivation

There are two main forms of the phenomenon under consideration - material and intangible. Motivation and stimulation of personnel activities should be aimed at getting workers interested in the results of their work, which contribute to achieving the goals of the business entity, which should be achieved by a simultaneous combination of these two forms.

Most workers are interested in high pay for their work. But at the same time, one cannot ignore those who require the use of methods of non-material motivation of personnel.

The latter is understood as a system for creating internal motives in employees, not related to material incentives, that contribute to increased productivity and labor efficiency.

Non-material motivation of personnel must cover all employees, be comparable to the goals of the organization, and be updated - new methods must replace old ones. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the needs of workers in accordance with A. Maslow’s pyramid: physiological, safety, respect, self-expression, social.

There are a lot of non-material motivation methods. Here are some of them:

  • praise;
  • calling by name;
  • additional rest for outstanding achievements;
  • memorable awards;
  • career growth;
  • objectives and evaluation criteria must be clear;
  • every employee should have the opportunity to express an opinion that should be heard;
  • direct contact between top management and employees;
  • Hall of Fame;
  • unusual job title;
  • gratitude to employees from management in a public manner;
  • motivation board;
  • providing greater freedom within reasonable limits while retaining control functions;
  • congratulations to employees on holidays;
  • assistance in solving personal and family problems, etc.

Stimulus and the use of different types of stimuli

Motive and motivation are the internal driving force of human actions. A stimulus is an external stimulus that motivates a person to perform an action. The main objective of incentives is to influence the employee, as a result of which the speed or quality of work is increased. Incentives are divided into 2 main groups: material and intangible.

Material incentives include: 1. Incentives that have financial expression:

  • wage;
  • frequency of payments;
  • availability of bonuses;
  • surcharges for harmfulness;
  • bonuses;
  • compensation;
  • reimbursement of communication and transport expenses;
  • additional payment for length of service in the organization;
  • payment of 13 wages.

2. Material incentives that do not have monetary expression:

  • employee training at the expense of the company;
  • provision of hostel and company car;
  • discounted vouchers to holiday homes or sanatoriums;
  • provision of health insurance;
  • payment for housing at the expense of the company;
  • provision of additional days for vacation.

Non-material incentives include: 1. Moral incentives that help realize human needs:

  • awarding certificates and gifts;
  • awarding titles;
  • recognition as the best employee of the year;
  • posting an article about an employee in a corporate publication.

2. Social incentives that activate the realization of social needs:

  • providing opportunities for career growth;
  • status of the position;
  • friendly and friendly work team;
  • participation in professional competitions.

3. Creative incentives that allow the employee to realize his creative potential at work:

  • interesting work tasks;
  • self-realization in the company's innovative projects;
  • use of creative abilities when performing the functionality of the position.

Ways to motivate

Direct managers and top management of a company can motivate employees in three ways: coercion, an agreement on increased pay for quality work, and the creation of conditions conducive to self-motivation of employees.

In total quality management, the highest priority is given to the third method.

Self-motivation is the development of desires and internal aspirations of employees for certain types of activities. This can be achieved when the organization has created conditions that can give its employees positive impressions of the work done.

In our country, in commercial structures, a fairly common method of coercion is based on fines, dismissals and other negative phenomena. TQM technology has a negative attitude towards them. However, in some cases you cannot do without them, but they must indicate boundaries beyond which you cannot cross.

Methods of motivation also include reward, which can be in both material and intangible forms.

In addition, it is necessary to create an appropriate microclimate in institutions, educate, train employees, and, where necessary, convince them so that the goals of employees are as close as possible to those of the organization.

In the case of influencing the goals of the organization, employees have a feeling of participation in the activities of the business entity. At the same time, authority is delegated to those levels for which they are necessary, which contributes to the understanding of the organization’s goals by a large number of employees.


Some people believe that motivation and incentive are the same thing. However, this is far from the truth and the distinction between these concepts helps a person achieve his goals as efficiently and quickly as possible.

In fact, motivation is the inner core of a person, his world: beliefs, activity, interests, life principles, desires and needs. It is impossible to influence them. They are not susceptible to external manipulation.

A person himself strives to work and receives moral satisfaction from this. He doesn't care about bonuses or payments, he just goes to work and fulfills certain requirements. He has such a desire. A motivated person is disciplined, he always has a plan of action, he tries to achieve high results simply because he doesn’t know how to do it any other way and doesn’t want to.

He is satisfied with his own position, salary, place of work, team and everything else.

A stimulus is something like an external stimulus. Something that pushes a person to work. Thanks to bonuses and other rewards, the employer can influence the employee and increase the productivity of his work.

Incentives are not only material - for some, recognition in a team, praise from a boss or even family members is very important. In fact, both of these concepts have the same goal - to increase productivity, only global tasks fall on the shoulders of motivation, and stimulation helps solve these problems, somehow contribute to its occurrence and keep oneself in good shape.

In fact, both of these concepts have the same goal - to increase productivity, only global tasks fall on the shoulders of motivation, and stimulation helps solve these problems, somehow contribute to its occurrence and keep oneself in good shape.

For example, a person has just got a job and wants to get a position. This is his motivation, his inner impulse. Until he is hired, he is on a probationary period; an employment contract is an incentive to work productively.

Unlike motivation, incentives have a temporary effect. Sooner or later you forget about concluding a contract, as well as about an increase in salary, position, and so on.

Motivation is long-lasting, as it is based on the internal impulses and desires of the person himself. Of course, sometimes it can disappear, often due to stress, but after a short rest or proper rest it appears again. Naturally, if the employee continues to be motivated and enjoys his own working conditions.

Scientific research

American psychologist Frederick Herzberg believed that two types of factors influence employee motivation. Working conditions exert pressure on job dissatisfaction. A person will not particularly value his position if his office has large windows and a great view, but poor lighting or lack of air conditioning will certainly affect staff motivation. There are also motivators that, according to Frederick Herzberg, are responsible for satisfaction - career growth, bonuses, praise, salary and recognition.

Another psychologist, David McClelland, believed that motives are divided into three groups - the need for success, complicity and power. He said that an employee works more productively if he has the opportunity to control the situation (realize the need for power) and feels his own involvement in the success of the company.

If a person is determined to succeed, then he behaves more responsibly, is active and has no problem agreeing to complete tasks outside of working hours. Such people bring great benefits to the company.

Victor Vroom identified the relationship between work, results, rewards and the value of rewards. Motivation weakens if the effort invested does not correspond to the expected results and the value of the reward received.

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