The role of learning in personality development: educated fools

Education and personality development

Why is the role of education in personal development so high? To answer, we need to consider the concept of personality. Domestic psychologist D. A. Leontiev strictly distinguishes between the concept of an individual and a personality. He emphasizes that the individual is a nexus of natural organs and the functions they perform. Personality, according to the scientist, is a hierarchy of various types of activities. The learning process is nothing more than mastering a person’s chosen profession or type of activity. Leontyev believed that a person “is born” twice .

This first occurs at the age of three years. Then the child begins to separate himself from the outside world. He can already restrain his needs, wait if necessary. The baby cannot “wait.” The second time a person is born is upon reaching adolescence. The “adult child” learns to be aware of his motives and manage them. He takes care of himself - prepares for tests and exams, chooses friends. Then he makes an independent choice - whether to start a family, what profession to pursue.

The importance of education in personal development also lies in the fact that any learning involves the higher mental functions of a person. These include memory, thinking, perception, speech. The concept of higher mental functions (HMF) was introduced by the Russian scientist L. S. Vygotsky. They are not genetically determined, but are formed only through interaction with society, when the child becomes part of the cultural environment (family or school). A person has the ability to consciously control the HMF. Vygotsky was interested in what role the cultural environment plays in the education and development of personality. He sought not only to emphasize the importance of society in the development of the HPF. The researcher also wanted to reveal how this mechanism works.

The positive influence of school on the formation of a child’s personality

The influence of school on the socialization of an individual is enormous, but not always negative. It is through constant existence in a large group of classmates that the child learns to find a common language with everyone, he begins to understand the diversity of human characters and interests. Psychologists have long proven that children who study part-time or remotely have enormous problems in terms of socialization, which children who attend school do not face.

Another important positive aspect of the influence of school on a child’s personality is the formation of new interests in students. Modern educational institutions boast a variety of sections, theater and sports clubs. By participating in all school activities, the child develops and finds something truly interesting for himself. Sometimes it is precisely due to the competent work of teacher-organizers that a child is determined by the desired profession to which he wants to devote his life.

School also influences the development of volitional qualities in children. Ambition, determination, activity - all these positive qualities develop against the backdrop of the correct activities of teachers. By stimulating his students to constantly learn, to receive more and more new information, the teacher can ensure that children continue to show ambition and purposefulness throughout life.

In addition to knowledge of subjects, at school children also acquire certain views. Thus, during extracurricular activities, a teacher can instill in his students the idea of ​​the negativity of bad habits, the consequences of early sex, and all the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. All these ideas, presented in the right way, become part of the teenager’s worldview, directly influencing his future.

Readiness to learn

Every child is open to learning new skills. He learns to walk, talk, master the world around him - all his senses are tuned to perceive information from the outside world. But as we grow older, living conditions become less and less conducive to learning. An adult no longer has such confidence - he is not ready to learn .

Why is it difficult to remember the material covered already a week after advanced training courses? Why might teenagers, leaving class, not remember what was discussed a minute ago? Such unpreparedness manifests itself on two levels - physical and emotional. If a person is hot or cold, if he is tired, worried about something, his thoughts are constantly occupied with problems - all this will make learning very difficult. Being prepared to learn is just as important as being willing to learn . If the wood is not pre-treated with sandpaper, the paint will not be able to adhere to it. The same applies to mastering new knowledge.

American researcher Paul McLean wrote: “It is amazing how our civilization manages to discourage the desire to learn from the most curious creature on the planet - man.” Everyone has a desire to learn, and it underlies curiosity and all informal learning. We are interested in how to care for a certain plant, or where a foreign word comes from.

You can assess your emotional readiness to learn new information by asking yourself a few questions:

  • Do I often feel anxious?
  • Do I often dislike myself?
  • Does it ever happen that thoughts about work keep you from concentrating?
  • Am I too tired to do anything?

If you answered yes to at least one of them, you probably need some work on yourself before you start learning. Sometimes you may find that you need the help of a psychologist to solve life problems.

Personality – man – individuality

Not so long ago, in that unforgettable Soviet era, there was almost no talk about personality. We raised a child, prepared a citizen of a great country, a part of society. Yes, the education of society was the main goal. Today it is she who is the center of pedagogy and psychology. And the word became fashionable, only the lazy mother did not mention what an interesting “personality” her child is. So what is it?

There are three main concepts: man, personality, individuality. Many are sure that in essence they are the same thing. But it is not so.

  1. Man - This is the definition. A concept that indicates that an individual belongs to the human race. Man is a unique creation. This is the unity of biological and social principles. On the one hand, he is a biological being, and on the other, a social one. Therefore, it depends on physiological laws and on society.
  2. Personality. This is the subject of our conversation. This is the most important thing in a person, his spiritual fulfillment, his social attribute. This is what a person is. His attitude towards society and social status are his personality. In other words, if “man” is a vessel, then “personality” is its contents
  3. Individuality - A set of those characteristics that distinguish a person from others. Temperament, physical characteristics, intelligence, character, views, mentality, emotionality and life experience. Individuality is the first sign of personality.

Psychologists and teachers set themselves the task of identifying the most effective conditions for the full harmonious formation of personality.
By formation we mean social, professional, cultural and physical development. This also includes the cultivation of abilities (musical, artistic, managerial) and personal qualities (will, patience). We take development as an indicator of the level of development. The purpose and objectives of social education

The function of the individual lies in the development of experience, in the inclusion of a person in the social system of relations. In other words, a person is formed, manifests and exists in society, being its component.

Patterns of brain function that influence learning

What are the features that directly affect the learning process? Let's look at some of them.

  1. The brain is designed in such a way that new connections . To make the most of the brain’s capabilities, you need to provide it with as much information as possible, as well as time to comprehend it . The processes of nerve cells (neurons) that establish connections with each other are called axons and dendrites. An axon is a long extension of a neuron, and a dendrite is branched, similar to a tree. Axons and dendrites interact all the time, transmitting new information to each other. The places of their contact are called synapses. Even if a person lacks information, the brain will definitely fill in the missing data. For example, you see a cat standing around the corner. Part of her body is hidden, but your brain can fill in the missing elements. This is why the role of learning in personality development is so closely related to the functioning of the brain.
  2. The second property of the brain is its craving for patterns . With repeated establishment of the same connections between axons and dendrites, a pattern is formed. For example, you have never seen a lion in your life. When you first see it, it can be mistaken for a type of horse. But, if you remain alive after the first date, your brain will remember that a snarling animal with a red mane poses a threat to life. All lions that you meet in the future will be placed with their brains in a box labeled “Dangerous Beasts”.
  3. Imitation. The human brain loves the process of imitation. Information in the brain, other than innate, is absent until the time when many synapses are formed in it. The fastest way to form new connections between nerve cells is to observe the actions of others and copy them.
  4. The brain performs its functions poorly under stressful conditions . Since it was evolutionarily formed in a “bottom-up” direction, its most primitive functions are located in the lower sections. They are responsible for the flight or fight response. And these decisions are made very quickly, if the reins of power have passed to this part of the brain.

The negative impact of school on a child’s personality

When talking about the influence of a modern school on a child, we should not forget about the other side of this process. Many parents complain that their child is changing beyond recognition, and all because of the school environment. If a teenager does not end up in the best school company, then his views on life, which his parents so carefully nurtured, can change greatly. Children from bad companies often show rudeness, aggressiveness and bitterness. Bad habits also become their companions, and only the joint work of teachers, as well as parents, will help cope with the consequences of such bad influence.

If a child suddenly becomes an outcast in the class, this will definitely negatively affect his character and personal qualities. Typically, such children prefer to withdraw into themselves and not communicate with peers and parents. Against the background of general dislike, complexes, depression and even thoughts of suicide can develop. Here, only the help of always loving parents will help cope with the flow of problems that have piled up.

Conflicts with teachers can also negatively impact a child's self-esteem and academic performance. Feeling hatred for a teacher, a student can completely lose his student ambitions, which will immediately affect his performance.

Many parents, having read about the negative impact of school on their children, prefer distance learning. However, despite the possible shortcomings of school education, it is here, within the classroom, that the child’s important socialization takes place, which will subsequently affect his ambition and activity in life.

Education is the basis for success in life

This may seem like a paradox to a person from the provinces, but today the role of education in personal development comes first. Knowledge has become the main capital that people have. Compared to the previous century, labor force is needed less and less. For example, in 1967 the state consisted of 870 thousand workers. Now the most highly rated corporation, Microsoft, employs about 120 thousand employees. But its market valuation shows that the company's unit value per employee is about $15 million.

Over the past decades, educational requirements have also undergone significant changes. What was recently a higher education is actually becoming a secondary level. Now the importance of education in personal development is an issue that concerns not only school graduates. Learning, by European standards, lasts throughout life. Depending on needs, a person acquires new knowledge and skills at different stages of life.

It is believed that modern economic growth can no longer provide low-skilled workers with high wages, as was possible during the era of industrialism. The role of education in personal development is now also reflected through the possible enhancement of well-being. Having financial means, a person expands his opportunities in development and knowledge of the world around him - he can travel, afford the best medical care, and ensure a high-quality standard of living.

Higher education is a kind of guarantee that a person will not end up poor. A social study conducted by American scientists showed: among the black population, which is below the poverty line, the proportion of people with incomplete secondary education is 51%. The same figure among white Americans is 31%.

What does it give us?


First of all, let's look at the more material benefits of education, the result that you can touch and feel - a diploma, a certificate, etc. Our life is so structured that it is rare that an employer will decide to hire an employee who has no education at all. Even for the position of a cleaner.

Even if someone is lucky and gets hired “through an acquaintance,” there must be a certificate or diploma corresponding to the position. And if you decide to open your own business, then for the initial capital you still need to earn extra money. Also when searching for investors, it will be important for them to understand that you are well versed in the proposed idea and the declared area in general.


The main thing, and the first thing that education gives to every person, regardless of type and type, is the basis, the impetus for self-development, self-regulation and self-movement. For example, while still at school, a child develops an interest and desire to learn something new, discipline and self-control. In the process of acquiring a profession and simply new knowledge, we develop, discover some talents in ourselves, acquire skills and abilities.

If the teacher manages to interest a student, this will be the basis for further independent searches for information and prioritization. It is this that then pushes a person to the desire to understand the world around him, and subsequently himself in this world with the help of various methods of self-knowledge. Having learned to work with information and developed self-discipline, a person is subsequently able to independently master other professions, even without attending higher educational institutions.


Thanks to the organization of the learning process, we socialize, communicate and find like-minded people. After all, every day you have to interact with the same group of people who are completely different, and whose approaches are also different. This helps to establish closer, closer connections. After all, you must admit that most of them have friends from their school or student days. There are a huge number of cases when people were able to carry their school love or friendship throughout their lives. As for socialization, when communicating with different people, we are sometimes forced to develop communication skills. We learn to understand with whom we are comfortable, and with whom we would like to limit communication completely, and this is already a small piece in self-knowledge.

When I learn to distinguish between what I like and what I don’t, I will know what kind of person I am..

“Getting connections” also occurs when you know who you can rely on and who to turn to, even when creating your own business.


Agree, if you, for example, do not know another language, it is unlikely that you will be invited to an internship abroad. Or, if you don't know the basics of marketing, you'll have a hard time selling your resume or pitching your idea to investors. This is an opportunity to live a higher quality life.

A wide range of knowledge, together with acquired skills and connections, helps you meet your needs. It inspires you to achieve and move to a new level, to the next step in Abraham Maslow’s pyramid (you can read about this in the article “How, according to the theory of Maslow’s pyramid, human needs should be realized”).


Helps to raise a person's self-esteem, become more confident and gain recognition and respect. After all, you must agree that a person who has received only a high school diploma will rarely feel the same level of self-worth and confidence as a person, for example, with two higher educations. Because, in addition to the fact that the acquired knowledge helps to navigate in the modern world, there is also that moment when there is pride in being able to reach the end and achieve success and results. This gives status and a certain position in society.

6.Gives a feeling of belonging to a process or community

For example, having qualified as an accountant, a person does not feel that he is alone in this world, but he belongs to a whole group of people with the same profession, whom he can call colleagues, seek support, advice or recommendations, or at times share his experience himself. . Sometimes this sense of belonging is not realized by a person, but plays a significant role in his life.


This is an impetus to success, because a developed and conscious person understands the value of knowledge and does not want to stand still or stop there. Therefore, he has higher motivation and the ability to overcome obstacles, due to the fact that he has a variety of information, is able to take into account not only his own experience in his activities, but also adopts someone else’s, his thinking is not limited and there is a high ability to obtain something new. He can adapt to changes and be creative in solving problems. In a word, don’t chase after someone, but live “on the wave.”


Thanks to education, our society is developing, new technologies are appearing that significantly make the life of a modern person easier. People have been passing on knowledge to each other for a very long time, sharing experiences, and it would be a huge mistake to devalue what our ancestors had accumulated. The stories of people who have achieved global success without diplomas or certificates are very inspiring, but you must admit that not everyone has the innate ability to sense and anticipate the future needs of society. The economy is sometimes very unstable, and the lack of education, when there is only a great desire and self-confidence, can aggravate the situation.


The development of the spiritual sphere of a person also occurs, because, as I already said in the article “Does a person need to develop spiritually and how to do it?”, spirituality manifests itself in a person’s desire to know himself and the surrounding reality, in the formation of himself as an individual, self-realization and understanding of why I came into this world and how can I be useful to it.

10. Interesting personality

We may not notice all the benefits of the learning process, but the lack of it is immediately felt. This is not just an acquired profession or a certificate received - it’s books we’ve read, movies we’ve watched, some facts, it’s the ability to maintain a conversation with different people on different topics, it’s the ability to write competently and be understandable... Every day we read something, we look for the right street, solve a crossword puzzle, try to understand foreign words in a song so that we can sing along, and so on. We become not just interesting interlocutors, but interesting personalities whom we strive to be like and whom we turn to for advice.

11.Increases interest in life

New knowledge and information can inspire life itself. A curious person who can get carried away, feels excitement and interest in the surrounding reality - is less susceptible to diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular system and, in general, is less prone to depression and any types of addictions.

Existential issues in education

All modern philosophy considers the role of education in the development of personality to be immutable. The more people have an education - narrow or broad - the more society and its members have for a healthy and prosperous life. However, scientists are still looking for methods and methods that would improve the quality of education and increase the level of education. Society a priori assumes that learning is important and necessary.

But not every individual is inclined to think so. Adaptation theory can explain this. From her position, only that knowledge, skills and abilities are important that allow you to adapt to the environment and survive. Knowledge that is not directly related to survival will not provide the necessary motivation to acquire it. The role of learning in personality development is of interest to those who are able to make an effort on themselves - not every individual is able to find in themselves the necessary amount of free energy in order to perform actions that are unnecessary from the point of view of Nature.

Practice shows that many people resist acquiring new knowledge. In schools, teenagers have to literally be forced to absorb a minimum of information that promises them a prosperous life in the future. Another phenomenon is that there is a fairly large percentage of people who receive education for the sake of a formal certificate. The actual content of knowledge is of little interest to them, since it has no practical benefit. Usually these are people who have a low level of awareness and have little interest in self-knowledge. The profession is not of serious interest to them; rather, it is a means to provide for themselves and their family.

Every living organism has an inherent desire to get the best result with a minimum of effort. In fact, education is not an absolute benefit for everyone - however, everyone makes their own choice whether to cross their biological nature or not.

What inspired you to search for an answer?

I was inspired to talk about this topic by examples of famous people who did not receive certificates and certificates. For example, Albert Einstein dropped out of school when he was 15 years old. Steve Jobs, whose story I told in the article (“Real stories of people who achieved success through hard work and perseverance”), left college after the first semester, realizing that he was only wasting time there. And I began to wonder if it’s true that every person, relying only on his aspirations and qualities of character, can achieve the same success. Or is it still important to learn something, get a profession?

Second degree

They say you only understand what kind of education you really need after receiving your first one. Many people do not think about the role of education in personal development, what their desires are, and choose a university at random. Natural inclinations and preferences are not taken into account. And factors that, on the contrary, should play a secondary role, are brought to the fore. These are prestige, the desire of parents, the choice of friends, the territorial remoteness of the university. It turns out that gifted artists are trained as marketers, and physicists turn into managers.

Changes in life are hampered by fears – obtaining a second diploma is no exception. A long process of self-knowledge leads to the fact that a person begins to quite clearly imagine the profession of his dreams. This leads to torment that the wrong choice was made in youth. There may be fears of making mistakes again. But fortunately, we live in Russia, and not in China, where lifelong contracts can be concluded with employees. A good antithesis to such doubts is the understanding that not much depends . You can always change your university. There is also little justification for the fear of not being able to cope with work responsibilities and the academic load at the same time. Universities that provide second higher education are quite loyal and offer second higher education programs for working students.

Types and features

According to the nature and volume of knowledge, education can be: primary, general, special, and, ultimately, higher. But according to content they are divided into natural science, humanitarian and social. Our modern society is developing very quickly, turning into an information type. Therefore, a developed and educated person in him is, first of all, a person who understands his place in this life, his purpose. She knows how to take responsibility for her life, providing everything necessary. He understands culture, politics, economics and other areas.

The role of learning in personality development: bad advice

Finally, some bad advice. How to become a real loser and let your studies (and with it your life) go to hell?

  • The influence of education on personal development is nothing more than the imagination of losers. Instead of studying, gossip with your friends about your personal life. A more relevant topic will always quickly distract you from a boring French lesson;
  • Leave homework or other tasks until the last day. All this time tormented by your bad habit of procrastination;
  • If you are studying, communicate with professors and teachers as little as possible. Try to discuss them with other students, and respect them as little as possible. Those who want to get good grades must be able to do homework well and get along with teachers, quickly navigating the situation. But the role of education in personal development is great only for excellent students. Losers achieve everything themselves, without outside participation;
  • Use a marker to highlight the main points in your notes. No, do you really think that this self-deception will help you remember the definition during the exam? Recent research shows that information is stored in memory only when it is reproduced repeatedly. Highlighting with a marker is just a few extra steps;
  • Consider yourself already a fairly educated and developed person. Leave questions about the influence of education on personal development for those who still have to sweat over textbooks;
  • Never do more than is required of you. Instead of investing in a second higher education, advanced training, tutors, it is better to acquire good supplies of beer;
  • If a wave of depression or fear hits you, give in to these feelings to the maximum. Shed tears, endlessly think about the same thing, and under no circumstances even think about solving problems. Let education and its influence on personal development be a secondary or secondary issue for you. If there is no depression, see point 4.

Personality and the development of human individuality

The problem of the development of the human individual is directly related to the practical tasks of education and training. An individual is a person as a representative of the human race in general or as a member of a particular group. To reveal the inner content of an individual, the concepts “organism” and “personality” are used. These concepts define the qualitative characteristics of a person (individual) in relation to various systems. Personality is a person in relation to social systems, an organism is an individual related to biological systems.

In modern conditions, Western society raises the value of “I” to exceptional heights. N. Elias, a famous German sociologist, believed: “It is characteristic of the structure of the most developed societies of our days that what distinguishes people from each other, their self-identity, is today attributed greater value than what they have in common - their We are identities. I-identity prevails over We-identity.”

Considering the content of personality, B.G. Ananyev identified such personally significant phenomena as the needs of the individual in their broad sense, communicative and reflexive character traits and the self-awareness of the individual. Speaking about reflexive properties of character, Ananyev emphasized that it is these properties, although they are the most recent and dependent on all the others, that complete the structure of character and ensure its integrity. They are most intimately connected with the goals of life and activity, with value orientations, attitudes, performing the function of self-regulation and control of development, contributing to the formation and stabilization of the unity of the individual.

The well-known concept of the dynamic structure of personality, proposed by K.K. Platonov. This structure is formed through the interaction of four parties:

1) biologically determined personality characteristics;

2) features of its individual mental processes;

3) her level of preparedness (personal experience);

4) socially determined personality traits.

All four sides of the personality closely interact with each other. The dominant influence, however, always remains with the social side of the individual, his worldview and orientation, needs and interests, ideals and aspirations, moral, aesthetic qualities and moral development, etc.

Summarizing data from various sciences: psychology, physiology, pedagogy, medicine - about the phenomena of uneven general somatic, sexual and mental maturation and withering in all periods of ontogenesis, B. G. Ananyev came to the conclusion that knowledge of the patterns of these phenomena, as practice shows, allows you to actively manage development: identify sensitive periods for the formation of a particular function, based on this, build the learning process, prevent early aging, etc. It is extremely important, Ananyev believed, that the broad practical use of the obtained facts in solving problems of teaching and upbringing is extremely important.

Ananyev viewed individual development as an internally contradictory process, depending on many factors: heredity, environment, upbringing, and one’s own practical activities. He believed that in all types of development, no matter how specialized they may seem, the unity of man is manifested as a complex organism (individual), personality, subject (cognition, activity, communication), individuality. At the same time, he determined that a person as “a subject is characterized by a set of activities and a measure of their productivity, and a person is characterized by a set of social relations.” He emphasized that the integrity of human development constitutes its specific quality.

Analyzing the deep mechanisms of personality development, a wide range of connections between the latter and education, Ananyev had no doubt that in the near future, with the help of pedagogical anthropology, the study of internal relationships between the main aspects of child development will be sufficiently ensured.

A specific feature determined by the genetic mechanisms of the individual development program of a person, in contrast to animals, is the dependence of the final results of this development on the conditions in which it occurs, on the information received by his brain during individual development. Without receiving such information, the brain develops poorly: the necessary connections between its departments are not formed, and the required level of metabolic processes in nerve cells is not established. As a result of a sharp lack of information (“sensory deprivation”), entire areas of the brain may become unformed, and the content of RNA and amino acids in cells may be significantly reduced. It is important that for the full functioning of the brain there must be a sufficient number of connections between its various parts. Brain activity is largely dependent on sensory input from the external environment, not only immediately after birth, but throughout life.

Any education at its core is the creation of conditions for the development of personality, and, therefore, it is developmental and personality-oriented, but the problem is how to understand personality and where to look for the sources of its development. Traditional pedagogy, building the process of teaching and upbringing, proceeds from the recognition of the leading role of external influences (the role of the teacher, the team, the environment), and not the self-development of the individual.

Each age has its own specific and characteristic tasks. The boundaries of these periods and the characteristics of the tasks are very different in different societies, but everywhere the development of the individual passes through certain stages, levels, etc. step by step. A consistently developed personality is not spontaneous and not self-determined. Most stages, or steps, cannot be completed until the influence ceases to be beneficial to the body. A child continues to be a child as long as his own version of the cultural value system is in effect. Personal development is the result of constant and sometimes violent interaction between a growing child and those older than him, those intermediaries who bear the responsibility of transmitting cultural heritage and who, in performing this function, transform the child into an individual.

A person, in relation to his activities, is both an object and a subject of management. This combination of functions of the object and subject of management is called self-government. Man is a very perfect self-governing and self-regulating system. The level of self-government is one of the main characteristics of personal development. The mental mechanism of self-government is quite complex, but it is quite obvious that the pupil selectively relates to external educational or training influence, accepts or rejects it, thereby being an active regulator of his own mental activity. Every change, every step in the development of a personality occurs as its own emotional choice or conscious decision, i.e. regulated by the individual “from the inside”.

Human self-regulation is not an autonomous process. It should be considered as a reflection generated by the conditions in which a person lives.

The basis of the internal self-regulatory mechanism, according to the PC. Selevko, represent three integral qualities (psychogenic factors of development): needs, orientation, self-concept.

Self-regulatory mechanisms of personality Needs: cognitive, self-determination, self-affirmation, self-education, self-education, self-improvement.

Orientation: interests, views, social attitudes, value orientations, beliefs, moral and ethical principles, worldview.

Self-concept: I like, I am capable, I am needed, I can, I create, I know, I control, I own.

Considering needs as motives for personal behavior, a number of researchers (V.F. Sergeants and others) present them in the following classification:

• individual organic needs (food, housing, clothing, etc.);

•generic (species) needs (sexual need and parental instinct);

•needs of cognition and activity;

•social needs (needs for communication, sympathy, empathy, love, altruism, self-affirmation, etc.).

In accordance with his needs, orientation and Concept, a person transforms his existing ideas, views, values ​​(material objects, methods of activity, approved and disapproved standards of behavior, certain criteria for evaluating people, actions, ideas and principles) and worldview as a whole. Some of them are discarded (they have already played their role), others are improved or supplemented, and others are created as new forms of consciousness.

In the most general sense, it can be argued that children’s social thinking develops in several interdependent directions:

•from external manifestations to thoughts about true values, for example, from thinking about the attractive appearance of friends to assessing the reasons for their actions;

•from simple considerations to complex ones, i.e. from a one-sided focus on any quality of an object or problem to broader concepts when many properties and circumstances are taken into account;

• from straightforward thinking to flexible thinking;

•from focusing primarily on oneself, on the interests of the moment, to considerations about the well-being of others and the future;

•from visual (concrete) thinking to abstract thinking;

•from scattered, sometimes inconsistent thoughts to systematic, integral and harmonious thinking.

The main task of the anthropological approach is to search for natural connections between the biologically programmed development of man and all types of influences on him - purposeful and unpurposeful, intentional and accidental, systematic and episodic. Anthropologists' comparative studies of child rearing in different cultures have had a strong influence on pedagogy in recent times.

The strengthening of the anthropological position in social and pedagogical consciousness lies in the fact that there is a gradual awareness of the value of man as such, that self-determination, human development is the main goal of society, the main justification for its existence, and at the same time, the development of personality carries a great charge of creativity activity and a greater possibility of useful return, which is beneficial to society.

Status and social functions - roles, motivation of behavior and value orientations, structure and dynamics of relationships - all these are characteristics of a person that determine his worldview, life orientation, social behavior, and main development trends. The totality of such properties constitutes character as a system of personality properties, its subjective relationships to society, other people, activities, itself, constantly realized in social behavior, enshrined in the way of life. The transition of relationships into character traits is one of the main laws of character formation. This pattern was first discovered by A.F. Lazursky, for whom personality relationships and the genesis of character formation turned out to be categories of the same order.

Here are a few definitions of personality.

Personality - an individual as a subject of social relations and conscious activity; a system of relations conditioned by life in society, the subject of which he is; “ideal representation” of an individual in the life activity of other people, including outside their actual interaction, as a result of semantic transformations of the intellectual and affective-need spheres of the personality of other people actively carried out by a person (V.A. Petrovsky); as a mental formation that programs human behavior in accordance with the requirements of the culture of a given community (Yu.M. Orlov).

Moreover, if socialization is the assimilation of norms, principles, beliefs, rules of behavior of a given culture, then the function of the individual is to ensure the behavior developed in socialization. Schopenhauer argued that “the most valuable and essential thing for everyone should be his personality. The more fully this is achieved, and therefore, the more sources of pleasure a person discovers in himself, the happier he will be.”1

B.G. Ananyev believed that the greatest contribution to personality theory was made by A.S. Makarenko. In the process of a person’s social formation, his moral experience is formed, constantly practiced in social behavior, and with it a complex of values ​​and a person’s own properties. Makarenko’s pedagogical experience and teaching were a kind of psychological discovery, since the sociogenesis of character was revealed, the transition of external collective relationships into the internal relations of a person to the world around him was traced. A person becomes a subject of relationships as he develops in a variety of life situations as an object of relationships from other people, adults and peers, teams and leaders, people in different social positions and playing different roles in the history of his development.

What is the relationship between the concepts individual, individuality and personality?

The individual manifests itself as the psychological uniqueness of a separate, individual person, taken as a whole, in all his properties and relationships, and in the natural scientific interpretation of a person as an individual with a complex of certain natural properties. Individuality is always an individual with a complex of natural properties, although not every individual is an individual: for this the individual needs to become a person. In other words, this relationship can be built as follows: individual -> personality -> individuality.

However, it must be borne in mind that neither psychology nor sociology is able to define the individual only as the uniqueness of a single phenomenon - human existence. Natural science has accumulated many facts that prove the existence of the uniqueness of each person, even at the molecular level. The uniqueness of the phenomena was found in the patterns of the skin, in the timbre of the voice associated with the constitutional characteristics of a person, in the tremor of various motor systems, including the motor system of the eye, the uniqueness of the frequencies of the bioelectric rhythms of the brain and the possibility of identifying a person by an electroencephalogram. Consequently, the identified relationship must be clarified as follows: individual -> individuality (biological) -> personality -> individuality (personal).

I.S. Cohn notes that, being social, the personality is at the same time individual, unique, since this structure, the combination of roles and this particular awareness of them are characteristic only for this person, and for no one else, the same objective conditions in combination with Different personalities give different types of personality.

Man as an individual is a natural organism, appears in his natural, biological characteristics, this is the bodily existence of a person, which is a prerequisite for the formation of the mental. Individual, according to A.N. Leontiev, is primarily a genotypic formation. The concept of “individual” expresses the indivisibility, integrity and characteristics of a particular subject that arise at the early stages of life development. The individual as a whole is a product of biological evolution, during which the process of not only differentiation of organs and functions occurs, but also their integration, their mutual “coordination.”

The concept of an individual contains an indication of a person’s similarity to all other people, of his commonality with the human race. Man as an individual is a product of phylogenetic and ontogenetic development. The natural, bodily properties of a person constitute the prerequisites and conditions for the development of his inner world, the formation of specifically human abilities.

The concepts of “personality” and “individuality” capture different aspects, different dimensions of a person’s spiritual essence. SL. Rubinstein argued that the individual properties of a person are not the same thing as the personal properties of an individual, i.e. properties that characterize him as a person. Using the word “personality”, they emphasize its active representation in the eyes of other people. When we talk about individuality, we mean the qualities of independent selfhood. “If personality is the “top” of the entire structure of human properties,” wrote B. G. Ananyev, “then individuality is the “depth” of the personality and the subject of activity”1. Yu.M. Orlov believes that “individuality is a superpersonal mental formation that controls human behavior and thinking in accordance with the highest values ​​and removes the contradiction between culture and human freedom.”

Individuality is not only and not so much the inclusion of an individual in the system of social relations, their integration as personally significant, but rather his isolation from these relations.

The concept of “individuality” indicates that a person, from the whole variety of social roles and functions, the totality of connections and relationships with others, distinguishes his own, makes them the absolutely valuable content of his true “I”.

If personality is the certainty of a person’s position in relationships with others, then individuality is the determination of one’s own position in life, the very certainty within one’s life itself.

If personality arises in a person’s meeting with other people, then individuality is a meeting with oneself, with oneself as an Other, who now does not coincide with oneself or with others in the main content of one’s former life. Consequently, individuality presupposes reflection of one’s entire life, conversion, inversion into one’s depth, and the development of a critical attitude towards the way of one’s life.

Individuality is always an internal dialogue of a person with himself, an exit into the unique authenticity of himself.

Yu.M. Orlov defined the following conditions for a person’s ascent to individuality and freedom:

•Consciousness of freedom is a necessary condition for the development of individuality.

•One of the conditions for freedom in a given culture is a developed personality.

•The ability to control and become aware of one’s emotions increases the level of human freedom.

•The more satisfaction a person receives from fulfilling his duty, the more freedom he has, and vice versa.

•Control and management of needs.

•All the meanings that a person possesses must be cognized and realized. The ascent to individuality is associated with the expansion of the meaning of life.

The content and forms of work of schools and other educational institutions are socially conditioned and fulfill the most important order of society - to form a person in accordance with the requirements of a given society, to raise, educate and educate the younger generation with maximum consideration of the social conditions, including ethnic ones, in which they will be live and work. In this regard, it should be understood that the society in which a child is socialized is in many ways imperfect if the society is deformed, if the country is in a state of protracted crisis, especially against the backdrop of escalating ethnic conflicts. The child as an individual under these conditions is also deformed, many of his ideas about the adult world around him are distorted, moral and value guidelines, motivational attitudes, etc. change.

In modern conditions of the crisis of transition from one social conditions to others, the fact of a convincing interdependence of crime and mortality in Russia has been established (I.A. Gundarov). The main reasons are not economic, but socio-psychological: aggression and depression. The author of this study concludes that the dynamics of mortality during this period is determined by the dynamics of public morality, or rather, immorality, when the boundaries of morality became vague and uncertain and crime in any manifestations became almost the norm.

This means that the goal of education and upbringing is to assist the child in his independent development, relationships with a wider range of people through the culture of pedagogical activity and the teacher as an individual, through protecting the individual from harmful influences. Pedagogy, as a part of culture, sees its main task in introducing the child to the cultural heritage of society and in including him in the cultural environment, in developing in him non-violent ways of resolving any social, especially ethnic, interethnic conflicts.


1.What is an individual?

2. Using dictionaries and other sources, find definitions of the concept “personality”. Which of them sounds most convincing and meaningful to you? Why?

3. How do you understand the relationship between the concepts of “personality” and “individuality”? Illustrate this with examples from life, from fiction, cinema and theater productions.

4.What does “ascent to individuality” mean? Give examples of each condition for such ascent and interpret them.

Education as management of personality development

The teacher’s task is to implement a set of means by which the desired result is achieved. They organize and form methods of influencing it. This is management of personal development. Education implements the whole gamut of management functions: goal setting, planning, motivation, organization, analysis of results. In this sense, we can say that education is the process of managing the development of personality, which is divided into:

  • Physical development (physical education). Managing this process is the organization of methods, skills, knowledge necessary to improve physical fitness and physical health. While developing physically, a person improves his health by absorbing knowledge about exercise, the natural forces of nature, the rules of hygiene and his own body, which are passed on from generation to generation.
  • Mental development. It is inextricably linked with the physical, therefore it cannot exist separately. Mental development shapes all spheres of personality: motivational, intellectual, emotional, volitional, objective, existential and self-regulatory. All these areas together represent holistic formation, harmony, individuality and versatility.

When raising a child, it is worth remembering that we are raising an individual. Remember what it is. Remember her individuality. When organizing the educational process, try to guide the child, and not put into his consciousness all that educational mess that you, of course, read in books and on the Internet. The main forms of education - example, conversation, influence, stimulation - use them in equal parts, adding the most important factor - love - to each educational moment. Only with love can we grow into a truly harmonious, developed personality.

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