Human-human communication: meaning, problems and features

January 18, 2021

Hello, dear readers of the blog. It is difficult to imagine a person’s day without at least some type of communication.

After all, this is not only necessary to resolve issues and achieve goals, but also to satisfy the needs of man as a rational being.

But what is communication: a simple exchange of words, or a more complex aspect in our lives? Is conversational skill a talent that some people have, or can it be developed? How important is it to talk to people, or can you do without it? Let's figure it out.

Communication from the perspective of psychology

The term “communication” refers to different forms of interaction between people, which are carried out using various sign means, such as:

  • facial expressions;
  • symbols;
  • images.

The desire to contact another person arises from the need to act together.

Significance in psychology

To clearly understand what communication is, it is necessary to consider the various definitions of the term. They will help to form a multifaceted understanding of this method of communication:

  1. Human communication is considered in psychology to be a complex and multifaceted process that is aimed at establishing and developing contacts between a group of people.
  2. According to the literature on the culture of communications, communication is a unique process of exchanging the results of spiritual and mental activity between people. This may include assessments, thoughts, feelings, judgments, attitudes.
  3. Communication is also a basic psychological need of a person, which contributes to the formation of personality. In the process of interpersonal contacts, the subjective world of one individual opens up to another. This allows a person to self-determinate and self-present himself in society.


It is worth saying that often a person has a problem communicating with people. Why does this happen, what is the reason? So, psychologists highlight several points that will help you understand this fact:

  1. Inferiority complex. Often people consider themselves worse, stupider, or even simply uglier than others, so they try to reduce communication to a minimum.
  2. Superiority complex. The exact opposite of the previous point. In this case, a person considers himself so much better than others that he simply does not find an equal interlocutor.
  3. Excessive aggressiveness. In this case, often those around them themselves refuse to communicate with the person because of his unbalanced character or too sharp statements and views.
  4. Lack of experience. This point may seem funny, but not everything is so simple. People who communicate little with others often do not know how to do it correctly.

The essence of communication, purpose, functions

Verbal communication - what is it in psychology

Sociologists believe that interpersonal communication is an excellent way to convey social experience and culture to other people. Domestic psychologists support the idea that the purpose of communication is to create unity between the exchange of information and activities in society. But it is unrealistic to make an exchange if there is no understanding between people, because it helps to achieve success and establish close contact.

Important! Therefore, understanding is the main goal of interpersonal contacts. The result of communications depends on it.

Communication goals

Communication in a person’s life performs 8 main functions.


To understand what the contact function means and why it is needed, it is enough to remember the main fear of a person - the fear of being misunderstood.

Important! This barrier prevents the establishment of close and long-term relationships with people.

The more one person communicates with another, the easier it is to establish contact between them and, as a result, understanding.


The information function is responsible for the generation, transmission and reception of information. It is implemented in several stages:

  • first, differences in the awareness of individuals who are aimed at entering into psychological contact are equalized;
  • then beliefs, thoughts, facts are transmitted, and conclusions are drawn about what was heard;
  • at the third stage, the desire to understand the interlocutor is formed.

This function of communication is important because messages, plans, decisions and opinions help to establish understanding between contacting entities.


The incentive function allows you to stimulate a person to take active action. In this case, communication allows you to manage people.

Additional Information. In the modern world, this function is used in all areas of activity for manipulation.

Commercials are a prime example of successful implementation of a feature.


The coordination function allows people to engage in joint activities. Thanks to it, a group of people can coordinate their actions and effectively complete the task. If the function is implemented poorly, such communication will bring disappointment and losses.


Thanks to the emotive function, people are able to arouse the necessary emotional experiences in their partner, as well as change their own state.

Important! The transfer of emotions can occur both verbally and non-verbally.

If the methods of emotional regulation between partners are different, then the effective implementation of this function in communication will be impossible, and people will encounter misunderstandings and conflicts.

Understanding function

The terminology of the word “understanding” is associated with such concepts as “meaning” and “meaning”. Based on this, the main task of this function is to explain to the two people in contact the purpose of their communication, as well as the further development of events. Understanding also allows partners to get to know each other and predict the behavior, attitudes and state of the interlocutor in the future.

Influence function

The influence function is similar to the incentive function. Its main goal is to change the behavior, state, personal and semantic formations of the interlocutor.

Important! To implement the function, a variety of psychosocial influence techniques can be used. It can be used for both positive and negative purposes.

Ratio function

The relationship management function allows an individual to realize and fix his place in business, status, and interpersonal relationships. With its help, a person has his own circle of interests, important and necessary people, as well as acquaintances for specific matters.

Physiological basis of speech

The physiological basis of speech is illustrated in Fig. 5.

Peripheral speech support systems include:

  1. the energetic system of the respiratory organs necessary for the production of sound - the lungs and the main respiratory muscle - the diaphragm;
  1. generator system - sound vibrators (vocal cords of the larynx), the vibration of which produces sound waves;
  2. resonator system - nasopharynx, skull, larynx and chest.

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic mechanisms of speech


speech perception

Mechanisms for organizing speech response

Peripheral speech support systems: energy, generator, resonator

Second signaling system

Brain speech centers


Speech functions of the left hemisphere of the brain

Rice. 5. Physiological foundations of speech

According to the teachings of I.P. Pavlov, in humans there are two signaling systems of stimuli: the first signaling system is the direct impact of the internal and external environment on various receptors (this is also present in animals) and the second signaling system (speech). Moreover, only a small part of these words denotes sensory effects on humans. The work of the second signaling system consists primarily in the analysis and synthesis of generalized speech signals.

Special studies have established that a person’s ability to analyze and synthesize speech is associated with the left hemisphere of the brain. There are four brain speech centers: Brocca's center (located in the superior frontal gyrus), responsible for the volume of speech pronunciation; Wernicke's center (located in the temporal gyrus) - associated with understanding the meaning; visual center (located in the occipital lobe) – associated with the reading process; writing center (located in the middle frontal gyrus) – associated with written speech.

In addition, speech is ensured by the functioning of certain physiological mechanisms.

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic mechanisms of speech. Syntagmatic mechanisms reflect the dynamic organization of a speech utterance and its physiological characteristics during the functioning of the cerebral cortex. Paradigmatic are responsible for connecting the posterior parts of the left hemisphere with speech codes (phonemic, articulatory, semantic, etc.).

Mechanisms of speech perception. The transition to understanding the speech message is possible only after the speech signal has been converted. It is analyzed on the basis of detector coding, the phonemic interpretation of the information received by the brain. This means that neurons are sensitive to different sound signals and act on the basis of building a certain model of word recognition.

Mechanisms for organizing speech response. In an adult who speaks language, perception and pronunciation are mediated by internal physiological codes that provide phonological articulatory, visual and semantic analysis of words. Moreover, all of the above codes and the operations carried out on their basis have their own cerebral localization.

The complex process of verbal communication is based on the sequential activation of the mechanisms that provide it.

The first stage in the formation of speech structures is speech programming - building the backbone of a speech utterance. For this purpose, important information is selected and unnecessary information is eliminated.

The second stage is the construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. The general structure of the phrase and its grammatical form are predicted, mechanisms are activated to ensure the search for the desired word, and the selection of sounds that most accurately reproduce it. Finally, pronunciation, the actual sound of speech, takes place. Thus, the process of “speaking” unfolds, during which the communicator encodes the information to be transmitted.

During the listening process, the interlocutor decodes the information received, which in turn is a step-by-step translation of the sounds of audible speech into the meaning of words, and this ensures an understanding of what the communicator wanted to say.

Types of communication

Nonverbal communication - what is it in psychology

The exchange of information between people can be extremely diverse. A communicative classification will help you understand what communication is, what its role is in society, and what types it comes in.

Types of communication

By content

When communication is built between people, defining its goals is the main task at the very beginning. Therefore, dividing communication by content makes it possible to establish the motives for contact. According to this classification, communication occurs:

  1. Activity. There is an exchange of skills, abilities, operations and actions between individuals.
  2. Motivational. With such communication, people exchange needs, interests, and motivations.
  3. Air-conditioned. Thanks to this type, one person is able to make an exchange of physiological and mental states.
  4. Cognitive. The main purpose of such communication is to transfer knowledge.
  5. Material. When communicating, people exchange products and objects.

By purpose

According to goals, communication is divided into 2 types:

  • social, in which the goal is to expand and strengthen interpersonal contacts;
  • biological, which is required by society for the support and development of the organism.

Via communication channel

According to the communication channel, communication is divided into the following types:

  1. Non-verbal. The exchange of information between people is carried out using gestures and facial expressions.
  2. Verbal. This channel of social communication is realized through speech.
  3. Artificial. Communication is carried out through unique amulets, tattoos, and symbols that have a certain meaning. This type also includes books, the press, telephones, television and radio broadcasting.


By means of communication there are:

  1. Indirect. Communication is carried out with the help of intermediaries.
  2. Direct. Conversations between people take place in personal contact.
  3. Indirect. In this communication, various means and tools are used to exchange information between people. Social networks are a prime example of such communication.
  4. Direct. Communication occurs through natural organs, such as vision and hearing.

By contact

Depending on the contact with the interlocutor, communication can be:

  1. Indirect. This type of communication is considered indirect. Exchange between people occurs when they are distant from each other. For example, this is correspondence, telephone conversation.
  2. Direct. It is direct communication in which subjects are close to each other and exchange information using facial expressions, gestures and speech. This type is considered the most complete, since in the process individuals are able to gain maximum knowledge about each other.

According to the conditions of the situation

Depending on the situation, communication occurs:

  1. Official. Official communication is carried out exclusively in the business sphere. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of formalities and rules.
  2. Unofficial. Private communication is not limited to a set of rules. It can happen in any area.

Psychological characteristics of speech

One of the features of speech is its versatility (Fig. 6).

Functions of speech




Consists of a person’s ability through speech to encourage people to take certain actions or refuse them

Consists of the exchange of information (thoughts) between people through words, phrases

The point is that, on the one hand, thanks to speech a person can more fully convey his feelings, experiences, relationships and, on the other hand, the expressiveness of speech and its emotionality significantly expand the possibilities of communication


Consists in a person’s ability, through words, to give objects and phenomena of the surrounding reality names that are unique to them.

Rice. 6. Functions of speech

According to its many functions, speech is a polymorphic activity, i.e. for its various functional purposes is presented in different forms and types (Fig. 7, 8).35



Forms of speech

Rice. 7. Forms of speech

External speech is a system of sound signals, written signs and symbols used by a person to transmit information, the process of materialization of thought. It can be oral and written.

Types of speech





Rice. 8. Types of speech

Oral speech is verbal (verbal) communication through linguistic means perceived by ear. She has two subspecies:

  1. monologue speech is the speech of one person expressing his thoughts over a relatively long time, or a consistent coherent presentation by one person of a system of knowledge. Monologue speech is characterized by consistency and evidence, which are ensured by coherence of thought, grammatically correct design and expressiveness of vocal means. During preparation, such a speech is spoken out repeatedly, the necessary words and sentences are selected, and the plan for the speech is often recorded in writing. Monologue speech has greater compositional complexity, requires completeness of thought, stricter adherence to grammatical rules, strict logic and consistency in the presentation of what the speaker of the monologue wants to say. For example, the speech of a prosecutor, a lawyer in court;
  2. Dialogical speech is speech in which all its participants are equally active. This is psychologically the simplest and most natural form of speech. It occurs during direct communication between two or more interlocutors. It is characterized by remarks exchanged between speakers, repetitions of phrases and individual words after the interlocutor, questions, additions, and explanations. Both dialogic and monologue speech can be active and passive. Both of these terms are, of course, conditional and characterize the activity of the speaker or listener. The active form of speech is the speech of a speaking person, while the speech of a listening person appears in a passive form. The fact is that when a person listens, he repeats to himself the words of the speaker. Outwardly this does not manifest itself in any way, although speech activity is present.

People differ in the degree of development of active and passive speech. One person understands another person’s speech well, but does not convey his own thoughts well, another speaks well, but does not know how to listen at all.

In legal practice, this is the main type of speech used in the process of communication of an investigator, prosecutor, lawyer, judge with participants in criminal and civil proceedings, with various officials and other persons. Dialogical interaction is aimed primarily at mutual familiarization of the parties with the position taken, at clarifying attitudes towards various events, people, etc.

Written speech is speech through written signs (letter, notes, scientific treatise).

It is addressed to a wide range of readers, is not situational and requires in-depth skills of sound-letter analysis, the ability to logically and grammatically correctly convey one’s thoughts, analyze what is written and improve the form of expression. The use of written language creates the need to achieve the most correct formulations, strictly adhere to the rules of logic and grammar, and think more deeply about the content and method of expressing thoughts.

In connection with the existing clear regulation of the preparation of procedural documents in the legal literature one can find the term “protocol language”. This term means: a set of special legal terms and concepts, certain speech patterns, stylistic rules for drawing up procedural documents.

There are certain requirements for the protocol style of presentation: the use of unambiguous terms that exclude their arbitrary interpretation; the use of precise and concise formulations, certain phraseological units, definitions; a brief, understandable summary of the material.

Inner speech is speech that does not perform the function of communication, but only serves the thinking process of a particular person.

With the help of internal speech, the process of transforming thoughts into speech and preparing a speech utterance is carried out. Inner speech is a person’s conversation with himself, which expresses thinking, motives of behavior, planning and managing activities.

In speech, the following properties can be distinguished: content, understandability, expressiveness and effectiveness (Fig. 9).

Properties of speech


The number of thoughts, feelings and aspirations expressed in speech, their significance and correspondence to reality

Syntactically correct construction of sentences, as well as the use of pauses in appropriate places and highlighting words using logical stress

Emotional richness, richness of linguistic means, their diversity. In its expressiveness, speech can be bright, energetic and, conversely, sluggish, poor

The property of speech, which consists in its influence on the thoughts, feelings and will of other people, on their beliefs and behavior




Rice. 9. Properties of speech

A lawyer’s speech, as a rule, should convey knowledge and facilitate its transformation into beliefs. It must teach, educate, and have the goal of influencing the individual and the team, their mood, opinion, interests, behavior, feelings. To achieve an oral presentation, a legal worker needs high speech and mental culture. His speech should be scientific in content, comply with legal norms, and in form - logical, bright, figurative. A lawyer must be able to connect the content of his speech with life, take into account the states and needs of the people listening to him, and use various linguistic means of expression (grooves, intonation, stress, etc.). The success of such a performance also depends on his knowledge, professional experience, sincerity, fluency in the material, self-control, endurance, and correct external expression of his feelings.

There are certain requirements for a lawyer’s speech, ignoring which negatively affects his professional authority. Therefore, a lawyer’s speech should be distinguished:

  1. literacy, understandability, accessibility of the meaning of statements for any category of citizens;
  2. consistency, logical order of presentation, persuasiveness, legal argumentation with references to various facts, evidence, legal norms;
  3. purity of speech - the absence of non-literary, slang, and vulgar words in speech;
  4. compliance with moral and ethical rules and standards of behavior;
  5. expressiveness, a wide range of emotional means of influence: from emphatically neutral speech forms to emotionally expressive statements, accompanied by verbal means of influence;
  6. variability of statements: from an invitation to participate in communication to the use of phrases filled with categorical requirements depending on various communicative situations[6].

A lawyer, in the course of his professional activity, needs to constantly improve his speech skills and improve the culture of communication.

The appropriateness of statements, taking into account the context and subtext of the statement, the absence of difficulties in written speech, variability in the interpretation of information, good orientation in the field of evaluative stereotypes and templates, the plurality of meanings of the concepts used, the metaphorical nature of speech indicate a person’s verbal competence.

Knowledge, abilities and skills related to speech activity are important components of communicative competence and communicative culture, which is often called speech culture.

Features of communication

Functions of communication in psychology and their brief description

After the term “communication” has become clear, what it is and what it is needed for, it’s time to study its features. They will help you build proper communication:

  1. For quality communication, the presence of two active individuals is necessary.
  2. During a conversation, it is necessary to have mutual influence on each other, both emotional and physiological.
  3. Partners must have a single or similar information exchange system.
  4. When communicating, there must be room for communication barriers to arise.

Basic Rules

In addition to these norms, there are social rules that can improve communication between people.

Rules of communication (communication)

To prevent interpersonal relationships with friends, colleagues or a loved one from deteriorating over time, you need to learn the basic rules of communication:

  1. To create a trusting and informative conversation, visual contact is necessary.
  2. It is advisable to speak only to the point. Expressions that do not carry any semantic meaning should be excluded from the vocabulary.
  3. The conversation must always be maintained by asking questions and clarifying information.
  4. To keep the conversation going, you need to answer in detail. It is better to exclude monosyllabic and simple answers when speaking.
  5. You should not use words unknown to the interlocutor. The language and reasoning must be understandable to both.
  6. A good mood is the key to an interesting conversation. Even a business meeting could use a little humor and smiles.
  7. There should be no things in your hands during a conversation. They can take the interlocutor's attention to themselves.
  8. Pauses during conversation are insidious enemies. Long silence (more than 10 seconds) will cause discomfort.

Communication between a person and another individual is an art that anyone can master if they follow the above recommendations.

How to communicate with impossible people

Difficult people require a special approach during conversation. If you need to contact an unpleasant person, you can minimize the receipt of negative emotions using 5 basic rules:

  1. You should not take your opponent’s criticism or advice that you haven’t asked for personally.
  2. If your interlocutor likes to interrupt, you should not allow him to do so. This requires politely explaining to the person that his arguments will not be heard until the speech is finished.
  3. If the interlocutor does not want to talk, but you need to get an answer from him, in this case the best communication is to briefly state the essence of the question.
  4. We should not forget about the ability to listen to your opponent. Thanks to an attentive attitude towards the interlocutor, respect for his words and thoughts will be visible.
  5. There is no need to teach a person to communicate if he does it somehow wrong. Each individual has his own way of speaking. Therefore, an evaluative conversation will only irritate.

Communication is the key to the whole world. Careful study of the operating instructions and proper use will make it easier to achieve your goals.

The ability to empathize: empathy

Empathy is a term that means the ability to empathize. Empaths are people who take other people's misfortune to heart as if it were their own. In essence, this is a heavy burden, but here we do not choose. Empathy is not a developed habit, but an innate trait, like temperament and character.

Empaths are wonderful conversationalists and good friends. They always help because they also experience the pain that befell their loved ones. Such a virtue is not always good, especially for empaths themselves. They experience many times more than other people.

How to spot an empath.

  • May cry while watching a movie.
  • Drags stray animals into the apartment.
  • He is a good listener.
  • Helps not only with advice.
  • Responsive.
  • Often worries about trifles.

Such people are deeply receptive. They are wonderful friends. And this is another reason for communication: you will sympathize, you will feel relief when someone experiences identical feelings after hearing about your problem. Empathy is characteristic of every person, but to varying degrees. As a rule, friends show empathy towards each other.

( 1 rating, average 4 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]