Business communication: basics, types, principles and features

Business communication is a form of communication interaction that is based on the basic principles, norms and rules of business etiquette and is characterized by a focus on relationships with subjects or a group of subjects to obtain mutually beneficial results. Subjects who take part in professional communication interaction adhere to the official style of communication and are aimed at obtaining results by solving assigned tasks and achieving established goals.

The skills of competently conducting a business conversation and a correct understanding of the personal characteristics of the interlocutor, his goals, objectives and interests can be considered the determining factors for conducting successful professional meetings and negotiations.

Definition of the concept

Business communication, like any other, has a historical character. Its manifestation takes place at all levels of the social system, and in a variety of forms. When studying the theoretical foundations of business communication, it becomes clear that it arises in connection with a certain type of activity taking place, the result of which is the release of a product or the receipt of a particular effect. Each of the parties entering into such relationships must adhere to standards and norms of human behavior, including ethical ones.

The fundamentals of business communication are processes that allow the exchange of work experience and certain information. In a market economy, this allows you to get maximum profit. What else underlies business communication? Such interaction is impossible without physical and psychological contacts, as well as the exchange of emotions. This is why the ability to build relationships with people and find an approach to a specific person is so important.

On the one hand, it may seem that business communication is not such a complex process. After all, from very early childhood people begin to become familiar with communication connections. Nevertheless, business communication, like any other that exists in society, is quite multifaceted. It has different types, has many directions and functions. Various sciences study its certain aspects, including ethology, sociology, philosophy and psychology.

Let's consider the basics of business communication, its types, principles, and features.

Organization of business communications

When organizing business communication, certain rules apply. They concern preparation taking into account different outcomes, both positive and negative. You need to plan your time, create an appropriate environment, prepare your emotional state, and get acquainted with information about your partner.

The place of communication should not distract or interfere with communication. If necessary, you need to provide equipment - prepare auxiliary materials, some necessary documents, etc. When choosing a strategy, tactics, you should determine the direction, understand what can be sacrificed during communication. The process of direct communication must begin with establishing contact in order to create a favorable atmosphere. The process of information exchange is important. You need to be able to ask questions, listen to your opponent, observe his behavior, and correctly analyze the interlocutor’s reactions.

What it is?

Business communication is an interaction in which each participant has his own status. So, he can be a boss, subordinate, colleague or partner. In the case when people at different levels of the career ladder (for example, a manager and an employee) communicate with each other, we can talk about a vertical relationship. In other words, such communication is subordinate. Business communication can also take place with equal cooperation. Such relationships are considered horizontal.

Business communications take place constantly in official institutions, schools, universities and at work. This is a dialogue between subordinates and superiors, students and teachers, competitors and partners. And the achievement of the goal depends on how familiar the interlocutors are with the basics of business communication, its methods, forms and rules.

Types of professional communication

Business communication can take the form of:

  • conversations,
  • meetings,
  • meetings,
  • meetings,
  • negotiations,
  • presentations
  • conferences,
  • correspondence,
  • consultations,
  • interview,
  • report and in other permitted form.

A self-respecting professional and specialist needs to be able to interact competently, know the rules and language of business communication.

Successful people interact both directly in person in an official setting and indirectly through technical means: telephone, fax, mail, Internet programs.

Increasingly, in modern society they are resorting to electronic communication systems, and the organization of work is becoming virtual. High technologies help increase the speed of information transfer and its accuracy, eliminating the “human” factor.


Business communication differs from all other types of communications in that it has:

  1. Regularity. The basics of business communication are established rules for limiting communications. They are determined by the type of interaction, its tasks and goals, the degree of formality, as well as cultural and national traditions. At the same time, business etiquette, as the basis of modern business communication, serves as the main tool for organizing the process of business relations.
  2. Strict adherence by all communication participants to their role role. It must meet the requirements imposed by a specific situation. Also, all participants in business communication need to fulfill their specific role (partner, subordinate, boss, etc.).
  3. Strictness regarding the use of speech means. Each participant in business communication must speak professional language and know the necessary terminology. Speech should not contain colloquial expressions and words, dialectisms and swearing.
  4. High responsibility for the results obtained. All participants in business communication must be punctual, organized, true to their word and obligatory. In addition, they should strictly adhere to moral and ethical standards of communication.

Language of communication in the business environment

The concept of "language" is used to refer to the system of signs through which people think and speak. It is also a way of expressing a person's self-awareness.

The language of business communication is an official business style of speech intended for communicative interaction in a professional business environment, as well as other related areas.

Business language is a system of communication in oral and written form that regulates working relationships.

The official style of writing has the following features:

  • concise presentation of information;
  • strictly required form;
  • special terminology, cliches, clericalism;
  • narrative nature of written speech;
  • almost complete absence of emotionally expressive means of speech.

Business oral speech has three components:

  • content component (characterized by clarity and logic);
  • expressive component (characterizes the emotional side of information);
  • incentive component (recognized to influence the feelings and thoughts of the interlocutor).

The language of business communication of the subject of interaction is assessed according to the following indicators:

  1. Lexicon. The larger it is, the more expressive and effective the speech is. Moreover, the interlocutor is a literate, educated, cultured person.
  2. Vocabulary composition. In addition to how many words a person knows, what kind of words they are is equally important. Words used in common parlance, as well as obscene and slang expressions are unacceptable in the business environment.
  3. Pronunciation. The written language of the organization is the official state language of the country or the international business language (English). Business communication in the form of oral speech is complemented by pronunciation. It is customary to speak in a dialect that is closest to the literary language.
  4. Stylistics and grammar. The language must be literate. Correct direct word order in a sentence, absence of tautology, filler words, etc.


In production conditions, business communication allows each person to satisfy their need for communications, exchange experiences, learn something new, and evaluate their own professional qualities. The importance of such communications during negotiations is great. Knowledge of the psychological foundations of business communication allows you to maintain your reputation and image, as well as achieve success in business.

Among the main functions of this type of communication are the following:

  1. Instrumental. This function views communication as a control mechanism.
  2. Interactive. In this case, communication is a means of uniting colleagues, business partners, specialists, etc.
  3. Self-expression. Conducted business communication allows a person to assert himself and demonstrate his psychological, personal and intellectual potential.
  4. Socialization. By communicating, a person develops his business etiquette and communication skills.
  5. Expressive. It is expressed in emotional experiences and demonstrations of understanding.

All of the above functions are closely related to each other. Moreover, through their implementation, they constitute the essence of business communication itself.

Business communicationsCollective of authors, 2021

1.1. Business communications

Communication is a specific exchange of information, the process of transmitting emotional and intellectual content, as well as communication channels. The effectiveness of communications in an organization often determines the quality of decisions and their implementation. The concept of communication characterizes relationships between people, or more precisely, their connections in the process of joint activities. Without communications, joint activities of people are impossible, as is the management of joint activities.

Communication has several meanings. Firstly, this is the route of communication (air or water communications); secondly, it is a form of communication (radio, telegraph, etc.); thirdly, this is the process of communicating information using technical means - mass media (print, radio, cinema, television, etc.); and finally, fourthly, communication expresses the act of communication, the connection between two or more individuals, the communication of information by one person to another [15, p. 15].

Communication is a process in which at least two people participate: the speaker and the listener, who change roles during the communicative speech act. For communication to take place, there must be a subject of speech, something that is talked about and about which information is exchanged. Communication cannot take place if the subjects taking part in it do not know the language. When communicating, a statement is born. It contains everything that comes from the addresser regarding what he is talking about to his interlocutor using a language known to both of them. This process can be presented as follows (Fig. 1.1).

Rice. 1.1.

Communication process

Communication is a process of interaction between people, which includes:

• formation and development of personality;

• development of society and public relations;

• socialization of the individual;

• creation and development of social ways of interaction between people;

• social and psychological adaptation of people;

• exchange of emotions;

• training, transfer of skills;

• information exchange;

• exchange of activities;

• formation of attitude towards oneself, towards other people and towards society as a whole [15, p. 6].

Communication has three interconnected sides: communicative,

consisting in the exchange of information between people;
including the organization of interaction between people;
which is the process of communication partners perceiving each other and establishing mutual understanding on this basis (Fig. 1.2).

Communication can take place at different levels. Communications are distinguished at the macro level, meso level and micro level. Macro level

communications - mass contacts of strangers in fairly large groups - in a crowd, at rallies and processions, at the regional and national levels.
This also includes communications through various types of mass media. At the meso level
, communication occurs, for example, in educational and work teams between departments.
The micro level
of communications is interpersonal communication, implying a certain psychological closeness of partners.

Rice. 1.2.

Parties of communication

Communication performs a number of functions, among which the following can be distinguished: contact function, instrumental function, integrative function, function of self-expression or understanding, translational function, influence function, informative function, emotive function, status-determining function (Fig. 1.3).

Contact function

consists in establishing contact between participants in communication, mutual readiness to receive and transmit messages and maintaining relationships in the communication process.
The instrumental function
characterizes communication as a social mechanism for managing and transmitting information necessary to perform an action.
The integrative
function reveals communication as a means of uniting people.
The function of self-expression or understanding
defines communication as a form of mutual understanding of the psychological context.
The translational function
serves to convey specific methods of activity, assessments, etc.
The function of exerting influence
is to change the state, behavior, and personal and semantic formations of the partner.
The informative function
of communication involves the exchange of messages, opinions, plans, and decisions.
Thanks to the emotive function of communication, the necessary emotional experiences are aroused in the partner, as well as, with his help, his experiences are changed. The status-determining function involves fulfilling the role expected of a person and demonstrating knowledge of the norms of the social environment.

Rice. 1.3.

Communication functions

The multifunctionality of communication allows us to highlight the following aspects [19, p. 9–10]:

• information and communication (communication is considered as a type of personal communication, during which information is exchanged);

• interactive (communication is analyzed as the interaction of individuals in the process of cooperation);

• epistemological (a person acts as a subject and object of social cognition);

• axiological (the study of communication as a process of exchange of values);

• normative (revealing the place and role of communication in the process of normative regulation of individual behavior, as well as the process of transferring and consolidating norms in everyday consciousness, the real functioning of behavioral stereotypes);

• semiotic (communication acts as a specific sign system, on the one hand, and an intermediary in the functioning of various sign systems, on the other);

• the socio-practical aspect of communication, where the process is considered as an exchange of results of activities, abilities, skills and abilities.

In communication, one can distinguish between instrumental and personal orientation (Fig. 1.4). Instrumental orientation is aimed at performing a socially significant task, at a task, at a result; personal orientation - to satisfy personal needs.

Rice. 1.4.

Direction of communication

Business communications is a process of interaction between business partners aimed at organizing and optimizing one or another type of substantive activity. In the communication under consideration, the subject of communication is activity (business), and the communication partner always acts as a person significant to the other. The main tasks of business communication are productive cooperation, the desire to achieve convergence of goals, and improve partnerships.

Business communications require the implementation of the following conditions:

• mandatory contacts between all participants in communication, regardless of their likes and dislikes;

• subject-target content of communication;

• compliance with formal role principles of interaction, taking into account job roles, rights and functional responsibilities, while adhering to subordination and business etiquette;

• interdependence of all participants in business communication both in achieving the final result and in realizing personal intentions;

• communicative control of the participants in the interaction, including high level (game, manipulation, camouflage);

• formal restrictions [19, p. 15].

Formal restrictions appear in the following forms: conventional restrictions, situational, emotional, violent (Fig. 1.5).

Rice. 1.5.

Types of formal restrictions on business communications

Business communications can be defined as a science, the object of research of which is aspects of communication between people in the business sphere, factors that ensure the effectiveness of business contacts.

Business communication involves communication between people in the professional sphere. Participants in business communication act in official statuses, which determine the necessary norms and standards of human behavior. The peculiarities of business communication lie in the fact that people participating in business communication are distinguished by good mutual understanding in matters of business. The main goal of business communication is productive cooperation.

Business communication presupposes that people establish contact with each other, exchange certain information in order to build joint activities and cooperation. In order for business communication to proceed smoothly, it must consist of a number of successive stages (Fig. 1.6).

Rice. 1.6.

Stages of business communication

At the first stage, contact is established (acquaintance), during which an understanding of the other person occurs, and an introduction of oneself to the other person occurs. Next, you need to navigate the communication situation and comprehend what is happening. The next stage involves discussing the problem, after which a solution to the problem is developed. The last stage of business communication is the completion of contact.

Business communication should be built on a partnership basis, based on mutual requests and needs, and on the interests of the business. Such cooperation increases labor and creative activity and is an important factor in increasing the efficiency of the organization.

The structure of business communication includes:

• meaning and meaning of words, phrases. The accuracy of the use of the word, its expressiveness and accessibility, the correct construction of the phrase and its intelligibility, the correct pronunciation of sounds and words, the expressiveness and meaning of intonation play an important role;

• speech, sound phenomena: speech rate (fast, medium, slow), voice pitch modulation (smooth, sharp), voice pitch (high, low), rhythm (uniform, intermittent), timbre (rolling, hoarse), intonation, diction . Observations show that the most attractive in communication is a smooth, calm, measured manner of speech;

• expressive qualities of the voice: characteristic specific sounds that arise during communication: laughter, grunting, crying, whispering, sighs and others; separating sounds are coughing; zero sounds - pauses, as well as nasalization sounds - “hmm-hmm”, “uh-uh” and others [31, p. 19].

We can talk about the variety of business communications; communications occur in different situations using different means and communication channels. The typology of business communications can be considered in accordance with the following criteria: method of information exchange; means of communication; place of communication; number of parties involved in communication; type of speech; sources of communication regulation; level of communication; signs of communication goals; content of communication; subject of communication; type of connection in communication; means of communication; communication time; degree of completeness of communication (Fig. 1.7).

Based on the method of information exchange, oral

By means of communication it is possible to divide into four types: direct, indirect, direct, indirect. Direct ones
are carried out with the help of natural organs given to a person: hands, head, torso, vocal cords, etc.
Indirect ones
are associated with the use of special means and tools.
involves personal contacts and direct perception of each other by communicating people in the very act of communication.
Indirect ones
are carried out through intermediaries, who can be other people.

Rice. 1.7.

Typology of business communications

According to the place of implementation, communications are divided into internal

communications, in which the parties to communication are within the organization, and
communications - one of the parties to communication refers to the subjects of the organization’s external environment.

Depending on the number of parties involved in communication, one-way, two-way, and multi-way communications are distinguished. One-way communications

— one party participates in communication; this, as a rule, is the beginning of the communication process.
Two-way communications
- two parties take part in the communication process.
Multi-party communications
- more than two parties are involved in the communication process.

In accordance with the type of speech used in communication, there are monologue and dialogic. Monologue communications

— the generation of the message occurs in one place, the recipient of the information has no right to evade the execution of the order contained in the message.
In the dialogic
system there are many sources that have the right to create messages. Monologue types include: welcoming speech, sales speech (advertising), informational speech, report. Dialogical types of communications: business conversation (short-term contact, mainly on one topic); business conversation (long-term exchange of information, points of view, often accompanied by decision-making); negotiations (discussion with the aim of concluding an agreement on any issue); interview (conversation with a journalist intended for print, radio, television); discussion; meeting (meeting); press conference; business conversation (direct, “live” dialogue); telephone conversation (distant, excluding non-verbal communication).

If we consider the sources of communication regulation as a classification criterion, then formal and informal communications are distinguished. Formal communications

are carried out on the basis of well-developed and legitimate, usually expressed in written form, instructions, guidelines, techniques, etc.
communications are carried out on the basis of oral norms and rules.

According to the types of communications in the organization, there are: inter-level communications

— information moves within the organization from level to level within the vertical hierarchy;
horizontal communications -
an organization consists of many departments, so the exchange of information between them is necessary to coordinate tasks and actions.

In accordance with the level of communication, internal communications, two-way interpersonal communications, group communications, and organizational communications are distinguished. Internal communications -

a person himself analyzes information based on his own experience.
Such communications can be distorted, since the transmitter, as a rule, has a completely different experience than the one who receives this information. Two-way interpersonal communications
arise in a situation where two people are involved in the work process, they are faced with the goals of performing certain tasks and establishing cooperation with each other.
Group communication
exists among more than two people; usually groups are formed because joint efforts can achieve more than alone.
Organizational communication
occurs when groups realize that they cannot cope with problems without organization.

Depending on the purpose of communication, they distinguish: servicing substantive activities, clarifying production contradictions, conveying one’s knowledge and experience to the interlocutor, obtaining knowledge and experience from a partner. Maintenance of subject activities

— communication is built on the basis of interaction and exchange of information regarding the activities being carried out.
Clarification of production contradictions -
quite often, when performing work, contradictions arise that can be resolved through communication and information exchange.
Bringing your knowledge and experience to the interlocutor -
the purpose of this type of communication is the need to present the information that the sender has to the recipient.
Gaining knowledge and experience from a partner -
quite often a person does not have all the necessary information and in this case enters into communication with the interlocutor in order to obtain the necessary information.

According to the content of communication, they are distinguished: material, cognitive, active, conditional, motivational communications. Material

— exchange of products and objects of activity, which in turn serve as a means of satisfying the actual needs of subjects.
- knowledge sharing.
- exchange of actions, operations, skills.
- exchange of mental or physiological states.
Motivational -
exchange of motivations, goals, interests, motives, needs.

There are communications, the subject of which is joint activity, exchange of emotions, and obtaining information. Cooperative activity

— the subject of communication is the organization of joint activities.
Exchange of emotions
- the subject of communication is the exchange of emotions between the interlocutors.
Obtaining information -
the subject of communication is obtaining information in the process of joint activity.

By type of connection in communication: hierarchical communications, democratic communications. Hierarchical communication -

For this type of communication, direct communication is prioritized.
It is carried out in the form of an order, in which the message, if it reaches the recipient, will always be executed. Democratic communication -
for this type of communication feedback is a priority, the recipient has the right to choose whether or not to carry out the received message.

Depending on the means of communication: verbal and non-verbal communications. Verbal

- communication using written or oral means.
Nonverbal communications -
communications using facial expressions, pantomimics, proxemics, tactile means, appearance, images, etc.

Based on time, communications are divided into: long-term, short-term, episodic, real-time, time-sharing. Long-term -

communications lasting a long period of time.
- communications carried out over a short period of time.
- communications that occur from time to time.
Real time -
oral communication, telephone, some electronic systems.
With time sharing -
written information, fax communication.

By degree of completion: completed and incomplete communications. Completed -

the purpose of communication has been achieved, the issues discussed are no longer returned.
Incomplete -
the communication process is not completed for some reason; the issues under discussion are returned to after some time.

Communication represents information actions in a fuzzy information environment, which is caused by: the lack of information about some objects, incomplete information or lack of knowledge about these objects in general, or the presence of incorrect information about some objects. Communications, as a rule, are always carried out under conditions of uncertainty. Any, even the most accurate description or forecast, may turn out to be unreliable due to dynamic changes in the environment.

The result of communication is a change in the structure of the information space. G.G. Pocheptsov [23, p. 168] identifies the following types of information impact:

• information dominance, which is actions to prevent the use of information space by the enemy (opponent);

• information pressure, which is aimed at forcing the enemy (opponent) to take certain actions;

• information inhibition, or actions to stop the spread of unwanted information;

• information acceleration, or actions to increase the speed of dissemination of the necessary information, reaching a wider audience.

There are a number of principles of effective business communications that are recommended to be followed in practice.

1. Principle of sufficiency of information

— it is necessary to provide as much information as is required at the moment, no more and no less.

2. Principle of information quality -

information must be accurate and from reliable sources.

3. The principle of situationality,

including the unreasonable expectation of exactly the reaction to a communicative influence that is desirable, the possibility of finding the object of influence in a state of tension that is difficult to recognize, and subjectivity in the interpretation of situations.

4. The principle of cooperativity

— the contribution of each interlocutor should be such as is required by the jointly accepted direction of the conversation.

5. Systematic principle

subjects of communications (the system is holistic, unique, autonomous, adaptive, connected to the environment, i.e. open, not amenable to complete modeling of processes and states).

6. The principle of expediency

- you should not deviate from the topic of conversation, you need to find a solution to the problem.

7. The principle of persuasion

consists of expressing thoughts clearly and convincingly for the interlocutor.

8. The principle of listening

- You must be able to listen and understand the desired thought.

9. The principle of taking into account the interlocutor

— the individual characteristics of the interlocutor should be taken into account for the sake of the interests of the matter.

The rules of communication must be agreed upon and observed by all participants in the communication.


In order for negotiations to be as successful as possible, a certain atmosphere must be created. It is possible to achieve this goal only if the partners, communicating with each other, feel as comfortable as possible. And knowledge of the principles of the psychological foundations of business communication will help with this. These include:

  1. Exercising control over emotions. This point is quite important. The fact is that surging emotions literally in a matter of seconds can destroy relationships that have been built over the years. After all, they will show a person from a clearly negative side. And even in the case when the interlocutor allows himself unrestrained behavior, you should not react to this. Every person must realize that emotions and work are incompatible.
  2. The desire to understand the interlocutor. Adhering to the basics of the psychology of business communication, the parties need to be attentive to each other’s opinions. Indeed, in the case when one of the negotiating participants talks only about his own interests, without listening to the other side, this will not allow reaching a common agreement and obtaining positive results from the meeting.
  3. Concentration. Business communication is often a monotonous process. This leads to the fact that a person is able to miss some fundamental points of negotiations. That is why during a conversation it is necessary to focus the partners’ attention on the topic when it becomes obvious that they have stopped concentrating their attention on really important things.
  4. The truthfulness of the conversation. The success of a business is largely determined by trusting relationships. Of course, opponents may not say something or deliberately be a little disingenuous to enhance their own dignity. Nevertheless, as for the fundamental points, it is necessary that things be said that correspond to reality. This is how businessmen earn their reputation.
  5. The ability not to express subjective opinions. The fundamentals of ethics and psychology of business communication imply the ability to separate the interlocutor from the object of negotiations. In other words, personal attitude towards a person should never influence work matters. This is the main difference between personal and business communication. It often happens that an opponent who is extremely unpleasant to the interlocutor can be very useful for the cause. In this case, you should not miss out on the benefits. After all, it often happens that very pleasant and good people turn out to be insolvent in business terms.

The principles listed above must be taken into account by every person who wants to acquire the skill of proper negotiation and earn a good reputation as a business partner.

Basic Rules

  • Punctuality is a manifestation of respect for partners. To maintain punctuality, business people use planning.
  • Recency. You shouldn't say too much. This applies both to communication on the topic of solving a specific problem, and to the personal lives of employees, colleagues, and partners.
  • Respect for colleagues and partners. In business communication there is no place for curiosity, selfishness, or intolerance. It is necessary to respect the opinion of your interlocutor, no matter how wrong it may seem to you.
  • Using the correct language. Ability to conduct a conversation and create interest in the communication process.
  • The ability to clearly formulate the purpose of a conversation, conversation, negotiation, etc.
  • Maintaining self-control, control over feelings and emotions. Calm communication without rudeness, even if the interlocutor behaves in a manner inappropriate for a business person.
  • It is necessary to adhere to business attire. The dress code affects the characteristics and outcome of business communication.
  • No unnecessary gestures when meeting. Apart from a handshake, you should not touch your interlocutor in any other way.

Moral Foundations

In what case is there a high probability of achieving a positive solution during negotiations? To do this, a businessman needs to know the moral foundations of business communication. Communications between people pursuing commercial purposes must comply with the following principles:

  1. The basis of business communication should be the interests of the business, and not one’s own ambitions and desires. Despite its obviousness, people violate this principle most often. After all, not every person is able to find the strength to sacrifice personal interests that conflict with the benefit that will be received for the business. This is especially evident in those moments when something can be done with impunity, and the only judge in this case will be one’s own conscience.
  2. Decency. What is the basis of business communication? The organic inability of a person to commit a dishonest act. Decency is always based on such moral qualities as a heightened sense of conscience, when there is an awareness that silence or inaction will become dishonest, as well as a constant desire to preserve one’s honor in the form of nobility, incorruptibility and assertion of one’s own dignity.
  3. The ability to behave equally with any person, regardless of his social or official status.
  4. Integrity. A person must not only have strong convictions, but also actively strive to realize and put them into practice. This is manifested in the fact that he will never compromise his own principles, even in the face of a threat and obstacles to his personal well-being.
  5. Goodwill. This principle lies in the organic need to do good to people, which is the main category of ethics. Any professional activity is aimed at satisfying a person’s social needs. And in this sense, he produces something useful, that is, he does good. By adhering to this principle, a professional does not only do what is included in his duties, but also does much beyond this, receiving emotional satisfaction and appreciation in return.
  6. Respect for human dignity. Such a principle can be realized thanks to such moral qualities cultivated in a person as delicacy and politeness, caring, courtesy and tact. Moreover, all this must be combined with balance, restraint and correctness. Here, the ethical foundations of business communication are in close contact with morality. This should also take place in statutory relations, which in no way allow the leader to humiliate the dignity of a subordinate. Respect for a person, which underlies the ethics of business communication, allows people not to experience mutual offense, irritation and dissatisfaction. It protects against nervous shock, stress and other negative consequences of communication. Ignorance of the basic ethics of business communication by a person or inability to apply them in practice can negatively affect the opinions of others about him.
  7. Expediency and reasonableness. This principle underlies all ethical rules and regulations. Moreover, it is especially necessary in those forms of human communication in which it is very important to adhere to etiquette. By observing expediency and reasonableness, a favorable moral and psychological atmosphere is created in the work team, which greatly increases the efficiency of employees.

What is business communication, concept in psychology

The definition of business communication is revealed as a form of interaction that is based on the principles, rules and norms of business etiquette. Interaction is built between subjects of a certain group in order to achieve business results.

Communication between partners

Subjects who participate in communication must maintain formality. Their interaction is aimed at obtaining certain results and solving assigned tasks. The determining factors for successful negotiations are the skills of competent business conversation.

Features of business communication

Business communication is understood as a complex, multifaceted process that is aimed at forming contacts between business entities. Individuals are connected by work, official activities or professional interests. Participants in the interaction come into contact at an official level to achieve specific goals.

The main characteristic of business communication is its regulation. That is, it must be subject to established schedules and professional ethical standards. Business communication etiquette is divided into two groups:

  • norms;
  • instructions.

Norms are directed rules that work between members of the same group of equal status. Mentoring is the interaction between a subordinate and a superior.

The peculiarities of business communication are that it is subject to general requirements. They are not based on being friendly to each other. Contacts should be based not on liking, but on the interests of the service, regardless of personal preferences.

Regularity is also expressed in the culture of speech, compliance with certain norms of linguistic behavior, grammar and style. All designs are selected taking into account socio-psychological characteristics and taking into account age indicators.

Business basis

The organization of any type of business communication should be built on a partnership basis. The main principle is cooperation. The result and productivity of work depends on how effectively the interaction is built.

Norms of culture of behavior

Let us briefly consider the basics of business communication etiquette. Knowledge of the rules and norms of behavior, and, of course, compliance with them, brings pleasure and benefit to their owner. A person, if he is well brought up, will feel confident everywhere, easily overcoming psychological barriers of communication, without experiencing an inferiority complex and having the opportunity to constantly expand his social circle.

The rules of etiquette that underlie effective business communication are a set of norms necessary for treating people politely. In official communications, in this case, the correspondence of appearance, manners, gestures, speech, posture, posture, facial expressions, clothing and tone, as well as the social role inherent in a person and his social and business status, is considered. Such requirements become especially important when participating in any strictly regulated event that requires adherence to strictly established boundaries. Failure to follow the rules of etiquette in this case will be considered as an insult to the dignity of the participants in communications, which will cause their disapproval.

But it is worth noting that even with a thorough knowledge of the basics of professional business communication, it is not always possible to avoid some mistakes. After all, etiquette standards should not be applied mechanically. For each specific situation, they are subject to some adjustment. And this can be done with professional tact. Only it will protect the employee from errors.

Let's consider how the head of a company should behave during a business conversation. When greeting its participants, you need to greet them politely, shaking everyone’s hand (without squeezing it too tightly). Before starting the conversation itself, you should offer tea or coffee to your interlocutors. A similar tradition appeared not so long ago. Nevertheless, today almost everyone adheres to it. A cup of aromatic drink will allow a person to get rid of some tension and have a positive attitude towards the conversation.

Knowing the basics of business communication ethics will help prevent an unpleasant situation. If a mistake occurs during negotiations, you should apologize to your interlocutors for the inconvenience caused to them. And only after this the conversation can be continued.

Compliance with the ethical principles of business communication implies that when discussing business issues with partners, you should try to answer all their questions. In cases where, for one reason or another, it is impossible to do this directly during the conversation, you should apologize and ask for time to think, indicating a specific date.

When conducting negotiations, you need to keep a notepad and pen with you, writing down all the most important information voiced. You should not raise your voice. You need to speak clearly and clearly. The clothing style must be businesslike.

Communication "superior-subordinate"

The boss is “higher” than the subordinate

Or "top to bottom". Any good leader should try to create a comfortable atmosphere in the team. It is the self-discipline of a leader that is the most powerful motivator and example for subordinates.

Therefore, it is first of all important for people holding leadership positions to comply with the ethical rules of business communication.

Advice: The effective work of the entire company begins with the self-discipline of the leader. Only by learning to manage yourself can you manage other people. Familiarity, being late, and postponing decisions “for later” should disappear from habits. All this will help strengthen your authority and win the favor of your employees - everyone wants to strive for a bright future with an ideal leader.

The manager is the one who manages the work process and gives orders. You can do this in several ways, including:

  • Order;
  • Request;
  • Question or request;
  • Call for a volunteer.

An order is a strict form of instruction .
Orders should not be abused, but in a good way – they should be avoided altogether. Most often, direct orders are used in relation to unscrupulous employees in critical situations. But if it comes to problems and orders, think about what good such an obviously conflicted employee can bring to the company? A request is the most common form of order , especially if the team has already established a fairly trusting working relationship. In response to a request, the employee can give his comment if necessary. The manager can also present the request in such a way that it is equivalent to an order, while the tone remains friendly.

The question is usually asked to those employees who have shown themselves to be competent and proactive people, the same applies to calling a volunteer.

Advice to the manager: it would be a good idea to study your subordinates to find out which of them adequately perceives questions. For example, a qualified subordinate who is enthusiastic about his job and has earned the trust of his manager can give good advice on how to solve a particular problem. An employee who is uninitiative and unscrupulous is more likely to see the issue as a weakness of the manager and a reason to shirk work.

Also, subordinates always value fairness . So the reward should always be adequate to merit, just as the punishment is adequate to failure. At the same time, the mistakes of employees should not be left completely unattended - such behavior can show the manager as inattentive or tell the employee that he can work carelessly, shirk and go unpunished.

Among other things, the boss must show his subordinates that he respects and values ​​their opinions and contributions to the common cause, and in this case he will achieve reciprocal loyalty.

Types of business communication

The main task of official communications is always to achieve a specific goal.

At the same time, work issues can be resolved using various types of business communication. Among them:

  1. Business correspondence. This type of official communication is considered correspondence. When using it, all information is conveyed to the opponent in writing. No personal meeting is scheduled. Despite the fact that a lot of people are engaged in correspondence every day, composing business letters is a rather difficult task, because they must be prepared taking into account all the necessary requirements and sent within the current deadline. When presenting information in such a letter, it is important to adhere to the basics of the psychology of business communication and its ethical standards. The specificity of the text and its brevity are valued. It is worth keeping in mind that conducting such correspondence allows partners to draw some conclusions about each other.
  2. Business conversation. This type of communication is the most common form of official communication. Managers of all companies must conduct conversations with staff. Such conversations should have a positive impact on the team and business development. This kind of business communication allows you to clarify some work issues, which makes it easier to complete the tasks facing the company.
  3. Business meeting. This type of official communications allows you to increase the performance of the company. At meetings, urgent issues are resolved and the most effective interaction between employees or partners is achieved. Sometimes meetings are not held with the boss and his subordinates. Sometimes only heads of departments or organizations get together to discuss current problems.
  4. Public speaking. This type of business communication is necessary to convey to listeners any information of a presentational or informational nature. And here special requirements are placed on the speaker. He must understand the subject of his report. The text he pronounces must be logical and clear. Self-confidence is equally important.
  5. Business meeting. This type of communication is considered an integral part of doing business. Negotiations allow you to quickly eliminate any problems that have arisen, set goals and objectives, take into account the opinions of your interlocutors and draw the right conclusions. They are usually held between the heads of various enterprises. Each of them demonstrates their position during business negotiations. In this case, the parties must come to a common decision in order to satisfy the interests of all partners.

Business communication and management styles

There are several leadership styles and manners of presenting information in business communication, each of them has its own characteristics that distinguish it from others.


In this case, business communication is based on the absolute power of the leader over his subordinates. That is, the boss wants all the tasks that he sets for employees to be completed clearly and strictly within certain deadlines. At the same time, he does not consider it necessary to take into account the opinion of his subordinate.

This leadership style implies an interaction in which the leader identifies the idea, and the responsibility of the employees is to implement it. It does not matter whether those who are repaired agree with it, the goal must be achieved by any means, whether they have their own points of view on this matter or not.

Choosing this style of business communication is bad for the development of the company because people do not have the opportunity to express their ideas, which can be truly valuable. Subordinates cannot take the initiative that could help the company develop productively.


In this case, business communication is based on the coordinated activities of all employees. Here, subordinates can boldly express their ideas and freely express their own opinions. This is even welcome. After all, for such a leader it is important that his employees can realize themselves. The more truly creative ideas a subordinate presents, the better for the company.

A manager who has chosen a democratic style of communication is always friendly with his employees, fair and adequate. It is important for him that his company develops well.

This type of interaction is the most effective of those that currently exist. After all, it helps every person to emphasize their importance, move up the career ladder, and realize themselves in one direction or another.

By constantly communicating with a boss who is always ready to help and support, the employee has the opportunity to gain useful experience, undoubtedly necessary for his future life.

When business communication is based on a democratic style, labor productivity increases significantly, employees are always interested in their activities and are happy to do everything in their power to make the company prosper.


This type of business communication in the modern world is characterized by the fact that management does not care at all how the work of its subordinates is organized and what results it brings. In most cases, the choice of this style is associated with formal leadership. It is also possible that the boss is simply quite young and has no experience in running a business or organizing the work process of his subordinates.

Of course, this type cannot be effective and help the development of the company, because it is simply impossible to carry out activities productively and grow professionally in this state of affairs. Employees usually get used to such an atmosphere in the team and consider it normal.

Official business

The most important style of business communication is the formal business style. It is usually used by managers to enter into contracts or draw up other business documents. This type of communication is significant during meetings and negotiations; it shows the boss as a competent specialist.

Personal communication does not imply the use of official statements. But at official meetings with partners, you need to demonstrate your competence and knowledge in the issues discussed in this style. From the first minutes, this type of communication prepares people for the conversation to be businesslike and serious.


This style is used by people working in the field of education and science, for example, university teachers. This method of transmitting information is considered effective, but within the limits of its focus.

When seminar participants discuss a particular issue using a scientific style, they acquire knowledge about the subjects or phenomena being studied at the moment. The principles and forms of business communication in this style are characterized by the fact that speech should be strict, concise and self-possessed.

Social foundations of business communications

Business communication that occurs between people is derived from their activities. It fixes the content and social orientation of various types of production relations, the importance of communication for the life of the whole society, as well as for its individual social groups and individuals.

Business communication between people is a process that is quite universal and at the same time quite diverse. It arises in a variety of fields of activity and at all levels. This must be taken into account when mastering the social foundations of business communication, knowledge of which will allow a deeper understanding of the conditions under which interaction between partners will take place.

One of the main features of such communications is that the spiritual qualities of people find their manifestation in them. All interacting partners are subjects of interpersonal business relationships. They represent people of different ages with different moral, physiological, psychological and intellectual properties. Each of them has his own strong-willed and emotional attitude, worldview, value orientations and ideological attitudes. The manifestation of any of these properties allows, to a certain extent, to reveal the spiritual world of the partner and acts as an element of the content of interpersonal spiritual interaction.

Forms and purposes of business communication, its functions

There are several forms of business communication. The main ones are:

  • Conversation;
  • Negotiation;
  • Discussion;
  • Meeting;
  • Meeting;
  • Correspondence;
  • Performance.

Each of the listed forms has its own characteristics. However, the general rules of business communication are observed in all cases. For example, respect for opponents is present in every form. Another example would be the rule of punctuality. It is unacceptable to be late for the same negotiations.

If we talk about the purpose of business communication, it is defined as the impact on others. Such influence is expressed in the desire to persuade opponents to take some actions, actions, change their opinions, and achieve from them what they want within the business framework. An additional goal can be called the desire to learn more information about the interlocutor in order to use it in further communication to achieve the main goal. At the same time, the rules are followed, for example, the conversation is conducted in a polite manner, since in the communication of business people an impolite attitude towards an opponent is unacceptable.

Functions of business communication:

  • Information and communication – associated with the accumulation, formation, as well as transmission and reception of information;
  • Regulatory-communicative – involving the correction of behavior, the choice of methods of influencing the opponent;
  • Effective communication – expressed in the formation of the emotional shell of the interlocutors.

Communication between professionals

Maintaining tolerance towards each other is quite difficult. Nevertheless, each of us must understand perfectly well that all people are different, and it is necessary to perceive another person as he is.

This is also indicated by the moral and psychological foundations of professional and business communication of a teacher, who, when contacting his student, must, first of all, show tolerance. The essence of such communication comes down to the application in the learning process of principles that make it possible to create optimal prerequisites for the formation of personal self-expression in children and for teaching a culture of dignity, while eliminating the factor of fear of an erroneous answer. Tolerance in the 21st century is one of the ways to create harmonious relationships that allow a person to more easily integrate into society.

Pedagogical communication with students should, first of all, be productive. Its main goal is the spiritual enrichment of both parties. That is, both the teacher and his student. But obtaining positive results is only possible if the teacher demonstrates:

  • respect for the child’s spiritual world;
  • interest in what the student considers valuable;
  • respect for the individuality of the student with all the qualities inherent in his personality.

Business communication of a teacher must adhere to the following principles:

  • non-violence (giving the student the right to be as he is);
  • respect for the child’s work of learning;
  • respect for the tears and failures of the pupil;
  • unconditional love for the child;
  • respect for the student’s identity;
  • compromise;
  • relying on the child’s positive character traits.

Rules of communication

The more competent a person behaves in a professional environment, the better others treat him.

5 rules of communication in a business environment:

  • Focus on mutual understanding

Business communication has the goal of finding a compromise. It is customary to be ready and open to perceive and exchange information with a partner. It was unethical to provoke the interlocutor into conflict or avoid contact. Attention, respect and interest in the interlocutor’s speech is expressed in looks, gestures, and the ability to listen without interrupting.

  • Speech should be clear, intelligible, unhurried and non-monotonic.

In general, any extremes in speech should be avoided. When a person speaks too quietly, indistinctly, quickly or, conversely, too slowly, his speech is difficult to perceive, becomes incomprehensible and unpleasant.

In addition, if the subject speaks moderately loudly and extremely clearly, his partners get the idea that he is a mature person and a confident person.

  • Thoughtfulness of speech

The speech must be composed, or better yet, written down. Before starting a conversation, business people note for themselves topics and issues that require discussion. A report or public speech is built according to plan, the introduction, the main part and final conclusions, and results are written.

  • Ability to ask both open and closed questions

The answer will depend on how the question is asked. If the question requires a “yes” or “no” answer, the interlocutor will have to answer clearly; if the question remains open, he will have the opportunity to express his point of view. Questions that are too direct or tactless should be avoided.

  • Unacceptability of long phrases and complex sentences. Short, meaningful phrases save time and simplify the perception of information.

Compliance with all the principles and rules may seem problematic, but difficulties are overcome by working on oneself. The ability to communicate in a business environment comes with experience in business interaction.

Healthcare sector

As an example of professional communications, let’s consider the basics of business communication in the work of a medical registrar. This person has to communicate with people seeking help. That is why it is so important that this specialist work as competently as possible. He should remember that any negotiation is a dialogue. When they switch to a monologue (on one side or the other), there can be no talk of any productive cooperation. And for this, the medical registrar needs to have the ability to listen, asking the right questions in a timely manner. They should not lead the conversation astray and will allow you to clarify the topic under discussion as much as possible.

In order to begin effectively listening to a visitor, the medical receptionist will need:

  1. Stop talking. After all, it is simply impossible to give a speech and listen at the same time. The speaker should be helped to relax so that the person has a feeling of freedom.
  2. Show the visitor your willingness to listen to him. In this case, you need to act with the utmost interest. When listening to a person, you need to try to understand him, and not try to look for reasons to object.
  3. Eliminate irritating moments. To do this, you will need to stop tapping on the table, shifting papers, and not be distracted by phone calls.
  4. Empathize with the speaker and try to put yourself in his position.
  5. Be patient. At the same time, there is no need to try to save time and interrupt the person.
  6. Contain your own emotions. If a person is angry, he will most likely begin to give words the wrong meaning.
  7. Avoid criticism and controversy. Otherwise, the speaker will become defensive and simply fall silent.
  8. To ask questions. They will reassure the visitor, as he will understand that he is being listened to. Moreover, it is necessary to ask questions during 30% of the conversation.

As we see, the nature and content of business communication in each field of activity has its own characteristics. All of them are studied by specialists working in the fields of philosophy, ethics, sociology and psychology. It is no coincidence that a discipline appeared in the program for university students, which is called “Business Communication”. It allows us to consider ethical and psychological, and to be more precise, organizational and moral problems of official communications. There are also textbooks for this discipline. One of them was written by A.S. Kovalchuk. This manual talks about the basics of business communication in a very accessible way.

The book identifies the conditions and factors for optimal work aimed at creating a charming image. Also in this work, which is called “Fundamentals of Imageology and Business Communication,” the author examines the possibilities of using the results of such activities. In addition to university students, such a manual may well be of interest to people who are looking for a path to self-expression, as well as representatives of professions whose success depends on the realization of creative abilities.

What are the stages of business communication?

Communication in a business style is carried out in stages, each time moving to the next step. At the same time, skipping at least one stage is undesirable, because it is a full-fledged procedure that forms successful communication.

Business communication is based on the performance of certain sequential actions. Thus, the manager needs to:

  1. Form a motive. After all, communication is created meaningfully; a person makes contact for a specific purpose. Business communication in an organization cannot be effective if people do not know whether they need to negotiate or not. Therefore, you definitely need a motive why you should or should not cooperate with a partner. For this purpose, a preparatory stage is allocated, during which people analyze the need to participate in negotiations and determine the significance of future interaction.
  2. To set up a contact. This should be done when partners meet for the first time. They need to build friendly relationships. When meeting, partners usually shake each other’s hands, greet each other, and then begin to discuss the issues for which they actually gathered.
  3. Identify the essence of the issue. It is clear that business partners do not make appointments just to talk or enjoy tea. The reason for their collection is a specific problem that worries both parties and requires a solution. Therefore, the partners discuss the essence of the issue and proceed to discuss all the important points.
  4. Exchange information. In the process of business communication, you can share useful information with your interlocutors that could be useful for them to analyze your transaction.
  5. Find a solution to the issue. It is important that the solution to the problem is beneficial for everyone involved in the negotiations. If there are contradictions, then they should be resolved first. Otherwise, it will not be possible to reach an agreement. Once a confidential conversation has been established, ways to resolve the issue of concern can be discussed.
  6. Conclude an agreement. The solution to the problem adopted by all participants in the conversation must be secured by an appropriate agreement. Business negotiations are always aimed at results, creating a specific product of cooperation. Therefore, it is important to achieve the necessary agreement and impeccably comply with all the points contained in it.
  7. Analyze the outcome of the negotiations. At this stage, communication between partners ends. After a certain period of time, they meet again and analyze the results obtained. For example, they calculate income and determine the need for further cooperation.

Thus, the concept of business communication is based on certain principles and has its own forms and characteristics. A manager simply needs to be able to properly structure a conversation with his clients, subordinates, and partners.

After all, the role of business communication is to establish mutually beneficial cooperation. If a person knows all the intricacies of negotiations, then he will definitely succeed as a businessman. We can say that business communication is based on the ability to create all the necessary conditions to achieve the intended goal in business.

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