Psychology - directions, history, description, areas of application

Psychology is the scientific study of consciousness and behavior. Psychology is a multi-faceted discipline and includes many areas such as human development, sport, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes.

Hypnologists, psychologists


Directions for assistance

What we work with


Reception, consultation
Psychology is a fairly new science, most of its achievements have occurred over the past 150 years. However, its origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, 400 – 500 BC.

The emphasis, of course, was philosophical: one great thinker, Socrates, influenced Plato, who in turn influenced Aristotle. Philosophers used to discuss many of the topics that modern psychology now studies, such as memory, free will, drive, etc.

The beginning of psychology as a discipline

In the early days of psychology there were two dominant theoretical schools. An American psychologist named William James (1842-1910) developed an approach that became known as functionalism. He argued that the mind is constantly changing and there is no point in looking for fundamental blocks. Instead, you should focus on how and why the body does things. It has been suggested that psychologists look for the root cause of behavior and the mental processes that occur. This emphasis on the causes and consequences of behavior has influenced modern psychology.

Structuralism was the name given to the approach first proposed by Wilhelm Wundt. The term comes from Edward Titchener, an American psychologist who was trained by Wundt. Structuralism relied on introspection, a method of inquiry through which subjects made connections between what was going on in their minds while performing a specific task. However, this proved to be an unreliable method because there were too many individual differences in the experiences and reports of the study subjects.

Despite the failure of self-analysis, Wundt is an important figure in the history of psychology, as he opened the first laboratory dedicated to psychology in 1879, and its discovery is generally considered the beginning of modern psychology. Wundt was important because he separated psychology from philosophy by analyzing the workings of the mind using more objective and standardized procedures.

Because psychology is a science, it attempts to investigate the causes of behavior using systematic and objective procedures of observation, measurement, and analysis, supported by theoretical interpretations, generalizations, explanations, and predictions.

Academic psychology

This is a fundamental science, the research of which is purely scientific in nature and is not initially aimed at obtaining practical results. When studying a certain mental process, the task is to study it and understand it, to find relationships with other processes.

Academic psychology is characterized by:

  • explores and explains mental processes, looks for patterns;
  • does not look for or study ways to influence these processes;
  • creates a theoretical basis for further research within applied psychology.

Despite these features, academic psychology does engage in some applied research if it is of theoretical interest. Thanks to this, ways of influencing mental processes can be discovered, which will later find practical application in other areas.

History of psychology

In a philosophical context, psychology existed about a thousand years ago in Ancient Greece, Egypt, India, Persia and China.

In 387 BC. Plato suggested that mental processes occur in the brain, and in 335 BC. e. Aristotle suggested that it was in the heart.

Avicenna, a famous Muslim physician born in 980 AD, studied and treated epilepsy, nightmares and poor memory. It has been argued that the first hospitals for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses were established by Islamic doctors in the Middle Ages.

In 1774, Franz Mesmer suggested that hypnosis, or “mesmerism,” could help treat certain types of mental illness.

In 1793, Philippe Pinel released the first patients with mental health problems from confinement, a signal for more humane treatment.

In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt of Germany founded psychology as an independent experimental field of study. He created the first laboratory that conducted psychological research exclusively at the University of Leipzig. Wundt is known today as the founder of psychology.

In 1890, American philosopher William James published a book called The Principles of Psychology. This has been discussed by psychologists around the world for many decades. That same year, New York State passed the Public Assistance Act, which required people with mental health problems to leave their homes and go to a hospital for treatment.

Hermann Abbinghaus, who lived from 1850 to 1909 and worked at the University of Berlin, was the first psychologist to study memory intensively.

Ivan Pavlov, who lived from 1849 to 1936, conducted a famous experiment that showed that dogs salivate in anticipation of food, introducing the concept of conditioning.

Sigmund Freud, who lived from 1856 to 1939, developed the field of psychoanalysis, a type of psychotherapy. He used interpretive methods, self-analysis and clinical observation.

He focused on resolving unconscious conflicts, mental disorders and psychopathology. Freud argued that the unconscious was the cause of most people's thoughts and behavior, as well as mental health problems.

E. B. Titchener was a strong believer in structuralism, which focuses on the question: "What is consciousness?" William James and John Dewey were strong proponents of functionalism, which stated, “What is consciousness for?” The debate between functionalists and structuralists led to a rapid increase in interest in psychology.


In 1913, American psychologist John B. Watson founded a new field that changed the whole of psychology. Behavior, he argued, is not the result of internal mental processes, but the result of how we respond to our environment. Behaviorism focuses on how people form new behaviors from their environment.


Humanists viewed behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory as too inhuman. Rather than being victims of the environment or the unconscious, they suggested that humans are inherently perfect and that our own mental processes play an active role in our behavior. The humanist movement places a lot of emphasis on emotions, free will, and the subjective assessment of experience.

Cognitive theory

Emerging in the 1970s, it is considered the most recent school of thought in psychology. Cognitive theorists believe that we perceive information from the environment through our senses and then process the data mentally, organizing it, manipulating it, remembering it, and connecting it to information we already know. Cognitive theory applies to language, memory, learning, perceptual systems, mental disorders, and dreams.

Psychologists are now studying all of these approaches and choosing what seems to be the best of each approach for a particular situation.

Applied psychology

Since applied psychology is aimed at obtaining practical results in various areas of human activity, it includes a large number of areas. Its main areas are:

  1. Psychodiagnostics
    . Recognition and analysis of human psychological characteristics.
  2. Psychocorrection
    . Impact on identified deviations in the psyche to bring it into line with age and other norms.
  3. Consulting
    . Psychological assistance to healthy people experiencing temporary difficulties due to life circumstances.
  4. Psychotherapy
    . Psychological assistance to healthy people with personality disorders.

Applied psychology refers to areas that focus on helping those in need. Typically these are people who:

  • found themselves in a difficult life situation;
  • plan to build a business;
  • have difficulty communicating;
  • are experiencing a crisis in personal or family relationships;
  • are concerned about the behavior of their own children;
  • experience loss of strength, depression, irritability;
  • suffer from phobias and panic attacks;
  • trying to get rid of bad habits;
  • want to change their profession.

All of the listed problems and life situations are within the competence of applied psychology. In most of these cases, consultation with a psychotherapist is appropriate.

Perspectives in psychology

Psychologists study behavior from different psychological perspectives, each based on a common set of assumptions about what is important to study and how to study it.

Some conduct detailed biological studies of the brain, others examine how we obtain information, others analyze the role of evolution, and still others examine the influence of culture and society.

The classic modern views in psychology on the adoption of scientific strategies were the behaviorists, who were famous for their dependence on controlled laboratory experiment and rejection of any invisible or subconscious forces as causes of behavior.

Later, cognitive psychology also adopted this rigorous, scientific, laboratory-based approach as applied to memory, perception, cognitive development, mental illness, and more.

Methods of psychology

All methods used in psychology are divided into two large groups:

  1. Empirical
    . This group includes the collection and interpretation of available facts, statistical analysis of large volumes of data, and search for patterns.
  2. Experimental
    . These methods are based on artificial modeling of various situations for research purposes. This group includes, for example, social experiments.

In order to collect data suitable for research and analysis, methods such as:

  • observation - the study of human emotions and reactions;
  • introspection – a meaningful study of one’s own perceptions, emotions, reactions, desires and other mental processes;
  • interview - a conversation with a person, allowing you to obtain information from him that is not available for observation;
  • experiment – ​​purposeful modeling of a situation that allows one to obtain the necessary information about the psyche of the subject;
  • survey - identifying the individual psychological characteristics of the subject using pre-formulated questions;
  • testing - assessment of psychological qualities using pre-prepared tests, for which a mechanism for interpreting the reactions and answers of the subject has already been developed;
  • biographical research is an analysis of a person’s life path, allowing one to determine the characteristics of his psyche, build a relatively accurate prognosis for his future life and give recommendations for its improvement.

In applied psychology, the listed methods are usually combined in order to conduct the most accurate and comprehensive analysis of the subject’s psyche. For example, almost every person at least once applied for a job and underwent an interview and testing. And psychotherapists combine methods such as interview, observation and biographical research, and also invite the client to conduct self-observation in certain situations.

Critical Assessment

Kuhn (1962) argues that a field of study can only be recognized as a science if the majority of its followers share a common point of view or paradigm. Kuhn believed that psychology was still pre-scientific, while others believe that it had already experienced scientific revolutions (Wundt's structuralism being replaced by Watson's behaviorism). The key point here is the following question: can psychology be considered a science if not all psychologists agree on what and how to study?

Psychological portrait of this person

Each of us can turn out to be a psychologically strong person even with very modest physical data. Such individuals differ from others in the following features:

  • When communicating with a psychologically strong person, we feel his inner support.
  • He does not curry favor with people who are higher than him in social status, and communicates with everyone with respect and dignity.
  • He has personal boundaries that he knows how to define. Such a person treats himself with respect, so he will not allow himself to be treated with disrespect.
  • Perhaps he will not enter into open conflict with the use of physical force, but he will find a way to stop the disdainful attitude towards himself.
  • A strong person soberly evaluates himself, knows his strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, he knows how to ask for help in situations in which help is objectively needed. At the same time, such a person does not complain to others about troubles, he always actively solves his problems and does not take on unattainable goals.

It may seem that some of us were lucky to be born with a psychologically strong personality. But that's not true. The process of growing up and becoming makes a person this way. Even the muscles on the body do not grow on their own; they need to be trained. Personal qualities and traits can also be formed, get rid of negative ones, and acquire new ones.

The science

Psychology is a diverse field. Psychologists conduct basic and applied research, serve as consultants to communities and organizations, diagnose and treat people, and train future psychologists and those in other disciplines. They test intelligence and personality.

Many psychologists work as health care professionals. They assess behavioral and mental function and well-being. Other psychologists study how people relate to each other and to technology and work to improve those interactions.

Application of psychological research can reduce the economic burden of disease on government and society as people learn to make choices that improve their health and well-being. Progress made in educational assessments helps students with learning difficulties. Psychological science helps educators understand how children think, perceive, and remember, helping to develop effective teaching methods. Psychological science promotes justice by helping courts understand the intent of criminals, the truth of evidence, and the credibility of certain types of evidence or testimony.

Psychology is the study of thinking and behavior. It is the study of thinking, how it works and how it influences behavior. Science covers every aspect of human experience, from brain function to communication, from child development to elder care.”

Psychologists and psychotherapists work together to help people with mental disorders, but they are not exactly the same. A psychologist treats a patient through psychotherapy, helping to relieve symptoms through behavior changes. The role of a psychotherapist, who is a medical doctor, focuses more on prescribing medications and other interventions to treat mental health disorders.

How to avoid becoming a victim of psychological fortress

A strong person is not about saving the world, taking pity on the weak and punishing the bad by sacrificing oneself.

This is about how:

  • take responsibility for a feasible task, complete it efficiently and on time;
  • ask for help and accept it if necessary;
  • say “no” if it doesn’t suit you;
  • when saving a drowning person, do not become drowning yourself;
  • stop inappropriate behavior;
  • to feel self-respect, self-worth, acceptance and self-love first.

Facts about psychology

  • Psychology is the study of behavior and the mind.
  • There are different types of psychology such as cognitive, social and developmental psychology.
  • A person with a condition that affects their mental health can greatly benefit from treatment with a psychologist.
  • A psychologist may offer treatment that focuses on behavioral adaptations.
  • A psychotherapist is a doctor who is likely to focus on the medical treatment of mental health problems.

Types of psychology

In addition to a large number of specialized areas, psychology is divided into two large components:

  1. Academic
    . This is a science whose key task is to understand the human psyche in order to achieve objective knowledge. Academic psychology studies human behavior and creates a theoretical scientific basis designed to explain all psychological phenomena and identify the relationships between them.
  2. Applied
    _ This section of psychology is aimed at obtaining practical results. It explores ways to influence a person's mental state in order to improve their life, increase their productivity and level of happiness. Applied psychology is used in their work by psychotherapists, psychiatrists, teachers, trainers and other specialists who help people develop, improve and solve problems.

To better understand how academic and applied psychology differ, let’s look at each section in more detail.

Directions of psychology

There are different types of psychology that serve different purposes. There is no fixed way to classify them, but here are some common types.

Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology integrates science, theory, and practice to understand, predict, and treat problems of adjustment, disability, and distress. This promotes adaptation and personal development. Clinical psychology can help us understand, prevent and alleviate psychologically-related disorder or dysfunction, and promote a person's well-being and personal development.

A clinical psychologist concentrates on the intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social and behavioral aspects of human functioning throughout an individual's life span, across cultures and at different socio-economic levels.

Psychological assessment and psychotherapy are central to the practice of clinical psychology, but clinical psychologists are often also involved in research, teaching, litigation, and other areas of practice.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology studies internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, learning, and language. It looks at how people think, perceive, communicate, remember and learn. It is closely related to neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics.

Cognitive psychologists look at how people receive, process, and store information. Practical applications include how to improve memory, improve decision-making accuracy, or how to create educational programs to accelerate learning.

Developmental psychology

It is the scientific study of the systematic psychological changes that a person experiences throughout life, often referred to as human development. It is aimed not only at infants and young children, but also at teenagers, adults and the elderly.

Factors include motor skills, problem solving, moral understanding, language acquisition, emotion, self-esteem, and personality development.

It also looks at the innate mental structures that inhibit experiential learning, or how a person interacts with the environment and how this affects development. Developmental psychology overlaps with fields such as linguistics.

Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology looks at how human behavior, such as language, is affected by psychological changes during evolution.

The evolutionary psychologist believes that many human psychological traits are adaptive in the sense that they have allowed us to survive for millennia.

Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology involves the application of psychology to criminal investigation and the law. It involves assessing psychological factors that may influence a case or behavior and presenting the results in court.

A forensic psychologist practices psychology as a science in the criminal justice system and civil courts.

Health Psychology

Health psychology is also called behavioral medicine or medical psychology. She studies how behavioral, biological, and social context influence disease and health.

A doctor will often look at the biological causes of a disease first, but a psychologist will focus on the whole person and what affects their health. This may include socioeconomic status, educational level, and behaviors that may influence the disease, such as noncompliance with prescriptions and medications. Clinical psychologists typically work alongside other health care professionals in clinical settings.


Neuropsychology looks at the structure and function of the brain in relation to behavior and psychological processes. Neuropsychology may be applicable when the condition involves lesions in the brain.

A neuropsychological assessment is used to determine a person's likelihood of developing behavior problems after a suspected or diagnosed brain injury such as a stroke. The results may allow the doctor to provide treatment that can help the person achieve possible improvements to the cognitive damage that has already occurred.

Labor psychology

In a corporate setting, a psychologist can help increase productivity and improve relationships between employees. Professional psychologists are involved in assessing and making recommendations regarding people's performance at work and in the learning process. They help companies find more efficient ways to operate and understand how people and groups behave at work. This information can help improve efficiency, effectiveness, job satisfaction and motivate employees.

Social Psychology

Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand how social phenomena influence human behavior. It attempts to explain how feelings, behavior and thoughts are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other people.

The social psychologist examines group behavior, social perception, nonverbal behavior, conformity, aggression, prejudice, and leadership. Social perception and social interaction are seen as key to understanding social behavior.

Other areas of focus include military, consumer, educational, cross-cultural, and environmental psychology. The number of destinations continues to grow constantly.

Basic psychological techniques and tricks

There are a large number of psychological tricks and tricks that you can use to achieve your goal. Having studied individual communication techniques, you can easily find a common language with any interlocutors.

  • At the beginning of a serious conversation, try to relieve tension by telling your counterpart a harmless joke. An appropriate and unobtrusive compliment will help you win over a stranger. Try to openly show your positive emotions: your sincere, friendly smile will help dispel the doubts of your interlocutor. Use the mirror effect: start completely repeating the gestures and body movements of your counterpart, and also duplicate his tone and timbre of voice. Call your interlocutor by name more often, keep in mind that this is the most pleasant word for any person, a word upon hearing which he will definitely experience positive emotions. Choose the right moment to talk. If you want to ask someone for help, but are afraid that they will refuse you, wait until your interlocutor is tired. Observations have shown that it is at this moment that a person is unable to tell you: “No.” You should not try to aggressively prove your point of view, even if you are 100% sure that your opponent is wrong. You can correct your interlocutor’s mistakes, but you need to do this as tactfully as possible. Use flattery carefully: the main thing is not to overdo it with compliments. If your opponent feels false in your voice, he will stop trusting you. Don’t ask a person to help you bring a global plan to life: start with the little things, so it will be easier for your interlocutor to get involved in the process and begin to act in your interests. Cultivate guilt: Asking someone to do something they potentially can't do will make them feel uncomfortable. Therefore, the next time you ask for help again, your interlocutor simply will not be able to refuse you. During an argument or discussion, speak clearly and use short syntax. Try to avoid open confrontation and never criticize your opponent. Demonstrate a respectful attitude towards your interlocutor, emphasize how important communication with him is for you. Change your gestures and facial expressions depending on the situation. For example, if you start smiling skeptically and shaking your head, then without words you can let your opponent know that his arguments are wrong. As soon as your counterpart begins to say the things you need, support him using the appropriate signs: a nod of the head, a confidential look, etc. If your interlocutor demonstrates confidence in his abilities, and you need to convince him of the opposite, try to find a weak spot in his psychological armor. Making a person doubt himself is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. For example, you can always ask an unexpected question that will disrupt the flow of the conversation set by your opponent.


A psychologist's work can range from counseling people with anxiety to advising organizations on how to build better teams.

Consciousness is very complex, and conditions associated with it are difficult to treat. Thought processes, emotions, memories, dreams, perceptions, etc. cannot be seen physically like a skin rash or heart defect. Although it is possible to observe physical signs of some mental health problems. Many theories in psychology are based on observation of human behavior.

A practicing psychologist meets with patients, conducts an assessment to find out what is bothering them or what is causing them any difficulties, and recommends specific treatment, such as through counseling and psychotherapy.

Psychologists may have other roles. They may conduct research to advise health authorities and others on social and other issues, assess children who are struggling in school, conduct workshops on how to prevent bullying, work with company recruitment teams and much more.

Psychology is a fairly new science, with most of its advances occurring in the last 150 years. However, its origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, 400 – 500 BC.

Kuznetsov Denis Vladimirovichpsychologist of the highest category, hypnotherapist, medical psychologist - HypnoLIFE


from 1 to 2 hours


Result immediately

Session cost

from 5,000 to 10,000 ₽

Number of sessions

from 1 to 5
Special offer! 10% discount on first appointment until the end of the month. Make an appointment

How to influence people: types of influence

Sometimes the actions of others interfere with our lives, especially for loved ones. Then you want to find ways to influence a person psychologically so that the relative changes his behavior. And such methods of gentle pressure on the psyche exist. Using them, you can normalize relationships with many people, and this applies not only to relatives, but also to business partners, clients, boss, co-workers and those with whom you have to interact.

  1. Conscious and unconscious

Conscious manipulation is when the manipulator knows what exactly he wants to get and how to change the opponent’s actions. This type of influence can be aimed at changing the emotional sphere and views of the object in order to achieve certain actions.

Conscious methods include the behavior of the manipulator. For example, in order to win over the interlocutor, the opponent can repeat his gestures, copy his poses, and speak in the same words.

Conscious manipulation includes many points, here are some of them:

  • Questioning and clarification. The subject pretends that he did not understand the meaning of what was said and begins to ask again. But the phrases are repeated only at first, and then partially diluted with their own words so that everything retold takes on a different meaning that is beneficial to him. If you notice such clarifications and repeated questions, be careful and listen to every word, and if you notice an inaccuracy, correct your interlocutor, and do this even when he is trying to get away from the topic.
  • Interruption. In this way, the opponent wants to confuse the interlocutor’s thoughts. To counteract this, you should not pay attention to the fact that they are trying to interrupt you. Try to logically convey your concept or use special speech psychological techniques that will make the manipulator laugh, and if a group of listeners laughs at him, then his NLP methods will no longer be effective.
  • False weakness. The subject shows that he is weaker than his interlocutor, and thereby achieves what he wants. After all, if someone weaker is next to us, then we relax and become more forgiving. And when the brain works in a relaxed mode, then the patterns and attitudes emanating from the person with whom we communicate go straight into the subconscious and become stronger there. It is not easy to resist this method; you must always be alert and control all information coming from strangers.

Conscious forms of influence also include:

  • requests;
  • orders;
  • coercion through guilt or duty;
  • penalties;
  • threats.

If you understand that they are trying to influence you, then the best way to protect yourself is to distance yourself from such a person or completely stop communicating.

Unconscious forms of pressure include:

  • Inducement - phrases are composed in such a way that the listener thinks that he himself wants to do what he is told;
  • Unforced advice indicating the solution that the speaker needs;
  • Commitment built on guilt;
  • Sharing is a form of influence that unknowingly causes a friend to do the same thing they did for you years ago.
  1. Open and hidden

Open influence is when the object realizes that he is being pushed to some action or action. This influence can be motivation or a request. In such a situation, a person himself can decide whether to succumb to manipulation or avoid performing it.

Covert manipulation methods are more effective, but at the same time unethical. In this case, the person often does not even realize that he is under the influence and is fulfilling someone’s will. Hidden forms include skillful lies, suppression of important facts, and covering up with a good deed in order to obtain personal gain.

  1. Positive

Creating a means of influencing a person can be both positive and negative. Positive forms of pressure include:

  • Use of diminutive names. If you have just met, and the interlocutor begins to call you by an affectionate name, for example, “Natashenka”, “Oksanochka”, or even comes up with nicknames for you that are appropriate only in a couple, such as “Bunny”, “Pussy”, etc., then this means that they are trying to lull your vigilance and put themselves above. After all, subconsciously we not only trust people who affectionately call us, but also believe that they are one step higher in development and in other areas.
  • Diplomatically ended the conversation on a positive note. To win over a client or a stranger you like, it is recommended to end the conversation positively. For example, you can thank them for interesting communication and wish you a wonderful day. It is advisable for clients to express gratitude for contacting you and wish them something good. Such interaction will make you a pleasant and well-mannered person in the eyes of the listener and will endear you to you.
  • Rule of three "Yes". Marketers and advertisers know that in order to successfully sell a product or service, you need to get the client to agree to three questions asked. If the target agrees with you three times, then it will be more difficult for him to refuse an offer to buy something or take advantage of a lucrative offer.
  • Mirroring your interlocutor. To win over the listener, it is recommended to unobtrusively repeat his postures and gestures; you can speak in the same words. This will signal to his brain that you are very similar, therefore, you can be trusted.
  1. Negative
  • Threat. Intimidation, the promise of harm to the object if the request is not fulfilled. This method can be used by a boss to force his subordinates to support a project or do overtime work, intimidating them with dismissal or deprivation of bonuses. To get out of this situation with dignity, start looking for another job, improve your skills, deepen your knowledge.
  • Criticism. This form of manipulation is common in everyday life in order to force people to purchase this or that product or unnecessary service. Women are especially susceptible to criticism, and manipulators are well aware of this. They begin to criticize the girl’s appearance, figure, and clothes, and then helpfully offer to fix it for a certain amount. This method is often used in pairs. In this way, one partner tries to influence the other, hoping for a change in behavior. To stop the flow of criticism towards you, you need to put the critic in his place, saying that you did not ask for someone else's opinion and do not need it. When a loved one or family member criticizes you, make sure the comments are constructive. If they have a basis, then you can listen; if they are not constructive, just ignore them.
  • Self-praise. Essentially, this is self-promotion that has no basis in facts. A person proclaims himself an expert in some field, often at the expense of putting others down. Self-praise is constant talk about one’s imaginary talents and virtues, dubious successes and merits, which are often achieved in not entirely environmentally friendly ways. To avoid falling under the manipulation of an arrogant person, ask him leading questions about what they are trying to convince you of. And if the interlocutor starts talking about his scientific titles, many years of experience, etc., then ask him a simple question: “So what next?” This is usually discouraging and baffles the manipulator.
  • Rumors and gossip. A common type of manipulation, the purpose of which is to extract information of interest from the victim. In this case, the manipulator acts as a friend who says that he allegedly heard unpleasant things about you and, out of the kindness of his heart, decided to tell you about it. Of course, hearing lies about yourself is unpleasant; it causes violent emotions, which are used against you. Under the pressure of negative emotions, the victim has poor self-control and can tell everything the opponent wants to know.

The psychology of influencing a person allows you to use gossip for different purposes. For example, to turn a victim against someone, to extract the necessary information, to gain trust, etc.

To avoid falling into this trap, the main thing is to remain calm and always double-check the information received. And never make excuses to the one who brought the rumor to you. Speak with dignity and control your emotions.


Irina's review

I thought about psychological help for several years, but never...

Review by Elena

Not long ago I tried to commit suicide with...

Review by Svetlana

Deciding to see a hypnologist is often difficult for one reason or another...

Feedback from Ekaterina

Since childhood, I have always understood that my parents’ divorce, when...

Review by Natalia

For most of my childhood I experienced bullying from...

Developing Psychological Strength

Of course, there are people who from an early age show exceptional courage and determination, quickly react to changing situations and skillfully cope with their fears, but, unfortunately, there are extremely few such lucky people.

Most people are constantly faced with their own shyness, doubts, uncertainty, they are afraid to take risks, change something, fight back against bullies or challenge the injustice of their boss.

The wonderful fact is that everyone is afraid. There is no one who would never be afraid. When a champion boxer enters the ring, the amount of adrenaline - the fear hormone - goes through the roof in his blood, even if he is against a newcomer who put on gloves yesterday. After the fight, both boxers' adrenaline is replaced by the hormone of rage - norepinephrine. The body has ceased to be afraid, it is only determined to continue the action.

What is human psychology, its main directions

Psychology studies the individual’s psyche, the peculiarities of its manifestation and functioning, as well as patterns of development. Translated from Greek, it is the science of the human soul. This teaching has come a long way in its development, having absorbed a lot of useful knowledge. In the 19th century, psychology became an independent discipline. Thanks to this science, people have learned to understand the nature of mental phenomena. There are various areas of human psychology that study a variety of behavioral, moral, mental, unconscious, and personal issues. Such systematization allows us to examine and understand the nature of mental phenomena in more detail.

Main directions of human psychology:

  1. Cognitive - studies the form and content of cognitive activity. Thinking and intelligence determine the behavior of an individual. This section explores how various types of knowledge are acquired, retained and used.
  2. Associative - studies the psyche on the basis of associations. According to this teaching, consciousness is formed under the influence of sensations and feelings. Complex concepts are more easily perceived due to their identification with simpler ones. The consolidation of associations is influenced by the frequency of their repetition.
  3. Gestalt psychology is an attempt to explain mental processes through the existence of certain integral formations - “gestalts”. Through perception and thinking, surrounding objects are perceived by the senses as whole forms.
  4. Humanistic - studies the personality of a person and his capabilities. People live in the world of their experiences and, depending on situations, perform different role functions. The main task of an individual's life is self-improvement. A person thinks about high things only after satisfying his lower needs.
  5. Deep - studies unconscious processes. This science considers unconscious phenomena to be the driving forces of human behavior. The founder of psychoanalysis is S. Freud. The psyche of an individual includes unconscious and repressed forms. The basis of personality is made up of irrational, emotional, instinctive processes. Thanks to psychoanalysis, scientists are able to find out the causes of mental phenomena.

The importance of psychology lessons

Knowledge of human psychology is applicable in almost all areas of human life. Sometimes situations arise that require people to make an important decision, to determine the right approach. Social psychology lessons help you take an unmistakable step. They will be useful to all people who want to adapt to society, achieve mutual understanding with the environment, understand the causal factors of current events, the motives that drive other people. Psychological knowledge helps in solving personal life problems and confronting the problems that accompany a person in life. In addition to specialized literature on psychology for beginners, you can learn this science with the help of expert recommendations.

Psychology lessons developed for teaching embody knowledge taken from various theoretical materials. Professional psychologists work on them, whose task is not only to bring a number of scientific conclusions to students, but also to adapt them to practical use. Each lesson contains useful recommendations and various thematic tips.

The first step in learning is to study the person's personality. The study of causal factors affecting people's behavior requires determining the causal factors that influence their mental state. Practically, psychological theory is applied thanks to special methods. Having studied everything about psychology, the future specialist learns to influence other people and create friendly relationships with them.

You can get rid of fears and be confident in yourself with a specialist. For example, from the psychologist Nikita Valerievich Baturin.

What is the advantage of specialized psychology lessons over self-study using literature? The training course is specially created for beginners in this science who want to quickly learn to understand people. An experienced specialist, along with theoretical information, indicates the possibilities of their practical application. Without this, training with the help of psychological books can last for years without results - a person will not learn to behave in a conflict, difficult situation.

In addition to theoretical material, the specialist uses thematic games and exercises in the classroom. This helps to consolidate the acquired knowledge and improve understanding not only of others, but also of oneself. During lessons, students can participate in psychological tests and watch thematic videos.

Interesting facts in psychology

Knowledge about human psychology contributes to personal growth, helps to establish good relationships with other people, and achieve success in the professional field. Scientific achievements in this area open the door to the world of the new and unknown, allowing us to understand the reasons that prompted individuals to act this way and not otherwise.

A selection of interesting psychological facts:

  1. A person feels happy if his brain is constantly busy with something. Nothing is more depressing than the lack of new information and the ability to switch your attention from one topic to another.
  2. The brain works even during sleep. Waking up in the morning, a person remembers only what is really important to him.
  3. Gray matter always signals possible danger. True, people tend to ignore some signals, relying on luck.
  4. If a person wants to do something new, he needs about two months to get used to it. After 60 days, any innovation will be brought to automaticity and will not cause discomfort.
  5. People who have terrible dreams at night, as a rule, freeze in their sleep.
  6. In order to get rid of anxious thoughts, it is recommended to read a new book. It will help you shift your attention better than music, sports, alcohol or watching movies.
  7. If a person hopes to get too much, then he perceives failure very painfully. The more modest the plans, the calmer the reaction to defeat.
  8. In an unfamiliar place, people keep to the right. The line on the left is always shorter than the one on the right.
  9. People are more willing to disrupt order if they see signs of disorder around them.
  10. Individuals are reluctant to get into an argument with a calm person. They are more attracted to overly emotional opponents.
  11. The longer people sleep, the less they are at risk of mental illness.
  12. In order to establish a good relationship with someone, you need to say his name.
  13. What to do to fall asleep quickly: you need to lie on your back, close your eyes, roll your pupils up. It is in this situation that people are overcome by sleep.
  14. In a discussion, the one who shouts loudest often wins. Although often an overly emotional debater is wrong.
  15. Incompetent people often achieve heights because they are unable to appreciate the scale and consequences of their mistakes. They are distinguished by their stubbornness, their conscience does not torment them, they behave too self-confidently - again due to their unprofessionalism.
  16. Beautiful people rarely become criminals. They already get everything they want from life - due to their charm or simply at the expense of others.
  17. People who are busy solving a problem often do not see what is happening under their noses.
  18. The interlocutors can look into each other's eyes for only a couple of seconds. A gaze indicates falling in love or hidden aggression.

Manipulation of people psychology

There is no need to be naive and believe that you will never fall under the influence of human manipulation or hypnosis. It is better to be prepared in advance for the possible impact on your psyche. This does not mean that you should start looking at all people with distrustful suspicion. You just need to be prepared, more attentive and observant. If you have any suspicions, you should ask yourself what this person might need from you.

Manipulation of human consciousness. To understand the psychology of manipulation, you need to know what techniques manipulators most often use. The manipulator, in order to achieve what he wants from a specific person, begins to praise him in order to win his favor. When he feels that he has achieved the desired state, then he begins to very quickly ask for something to be done for him. An individual who has just been given a bunch of compliments will feel awkward and rude if he refuses the request, so this trick works.

If you realize in time that all the words that the manipulator said were inappropriate, insincere, or feel that they will now be followed by some requests, you should be firm. Some ill-mannered manipulators, seeing that this technique does not work, immediately take back their words, and in addition can say a lot of rude things.

A common method of manipulating people is intimidation. The manipulator believes that he is able to keep a person under control in this way; he thinks that he will abandon his own goals in his favor. Very often this method works.

A person’s desire to use manipulation against people expresses his personal weakness. The manipulator, gaining power over the actions of another person, tries to compensate for his own powerlessness. But sometimes people don't even suspect that they are manipulating others. Everyone has manipulated someone at least once.

Psychology identifies certain types of people who are potential victims of manipulation. In order not to fall under unnecessary influence, you need to determine your personality type.

The traditional type is people who usually spend time between sleep and the state of consciousness. They want to have comfort and be safe, they have logical thinking and common sense prevails.

Manipulation of the consciousness of a person of this type is carried out at the level of his needs.

The second type of people are individuals who are in a stressful state almost all the time. Their thinking is dominated by the right hemisphere of the brain, that is, creative. Therefore, they are sensitive, vulnerable, dreamy natures, to whom it is easy to inspire any idea.

Manipulation of these people occurs at the level of their imagination and feelings.

People of the third type are rational individuals in whom the left hemisphere predominates, that is, logical thinking. They build their attitude towards the world on the basis of logical analysis. They love specifics and facts.

Manipulation of these people is carried out through pressure on their sense of self-worth and justice, appealing to their morality and conscience.

People of the fourth type are guided in their behavior by primitive animal instincts. The basic needs of these people are: food, sleep, sexual intercourse.

Manipulation of a person’s consciousness is carried out by providing them with one of these pleasures.

The fifth type of people are individuals with mental pathologies. Their behavior is influenced by hallucinations. They do not have the opportunity to be guided by common sense, to fully understand what is happening around them. The harshest manipulation is performed on such people. They are simply intimidated or directly hurt.

Psychology of human memory

Memory is of particular importance in human psychology. Thanks to memorizing information, each individual develops, learns, and becomes a personality. Memory is based on the property of nerve cells to change under the influence of stimuli and retain traces of nervous excitation for a long time. Various biochemical changes occur in neurons. When memory is revived, nerve cells are excited even in the absence of a stimulus.

The psychology of memory is closely related to the properties of water. After all, the human body is 80 percent liquid. Water can remember the states it was previously in. Such a process is possible due to the ability of a liquid to absorb, as well as transform and redistribute energy.

What books on psychology will help a beginner?

In order to independently study human psychology, you need to read books on similar topics. Human psychology is studied from the beginning. Before you can understand complex scientific findings, you need to learn basic terms and definitions. Such information can be found in first-year psychology textbooks. After mastering the terminology, you can move on to studying the works of the classics - S. Freud, K. Jung, A. Adler, K. Horney, E. Fromm.

The most famous author's works on psychology: Ekman Paul “Recognize a liar by his facial expression”, N.V. Baturin “How to Manage Emotions”, Martin Seligman “The Path to Prosperity”, Dan Ariely “The Whole Truth About Untruths”, Alice Muir “Self-Confidence”. In addition to books, there are many interesting magazines: “Experimental Psychology”, “Russian Psychological Journal”, “Existential and Humanistic Psychology”.

Psychology should be studied from books. It is recommended to consolidate the acquired knowledge in practice. Before advising people, a psychologist must work on himself, change his character and behavior. First you should study yourself. In order to be able to help others, the future psychologist needs to independently overcome his phobias and get rid of his own complexes and problems.

( 1 rating, average 4 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]