Verbal communication: understanding the types and applications

January 20, 2021

Hello, dear readers of the blog. Communication through speech became possible after the evolution of animals into humans.

Ancient people used sound signals to warn of danger or convey important information that a bush with edible berries had grown nearby.

Today, verbal communication is something that every person cannot do without. Starting from morning coffee over instant messengers to conversations at work with colleagues about the boss’s new relationship.

Description of Verbal Communication

We can safely say that verbal communication is the most common method of communication used by the vast majority of people. This term denotes communicative interaction through speech, namely the communication of certain information, its perception and understanding.

Verbal communication occurs through speech, both oral and written. Speech can be expressed either by language or by written signs. Thus, communication through verbal communication implies interaction during a conversation or through messages intended for the interlocutor.

That is, the main means of verbal communication are language and writing. What are the most important functions of language in the process of communication? There are several of them:

  • Communication function . Language is the most accessible and most widespread tool for communication between people.
  • Constructive function . With the help of language, a person expresses his thoughts in a form accessible to the interlocutor.
  • Appellative function . That is, language makes it possible to convince, convey one’s point of view, and influence the opinions of other people.
  • Phatic function . Allows you to build or terminate interaction in compliance with accepted standards of etiquette.
  • Emotional-expressive function . Provides an opportunity to express your personal perception of the topic under discussion.
  • Accumulative function . This is the collection and accumulation of valuable information in the process of communicating with other people, as well as its preservation and transmission to descendants.
  • Aesthetic function . You can convey your idea beautifully, elegantly, unusually, somehow in a special way.

We can also name other functions of language as a means of verbal communication. Linguistic specialists distinguish, for example, an ideological, referential function, as well as a nominative, ideological, magical, metalinguistic and a number of others.

Voice Characteristics

Intonation, volume, timbre, and rhythm of the voice can serve as an example of a combination of two types of communication. The same sentence will sound completely different if you alternate the listed methods. Both the meaning and the effect on the listener depend on this. Speech may also contain pauses, laughter, and sighs, which color it with additional colors.

Let's summarize. It is important to understand that a person unconsciously conveys much more to his opponent through nonverbal means, more than 70% of the information. The receiving subject must interpret correctly in order to avoid misunderstandings and quarrels. The perceiver also evaluates the signals sent by the speaker more, perceives them emotionally, but still does not always interpret them correctly.

In addition, a person verbally speaks only 80% of what he originally intended to convey. The opponent listens carefully, discerning only 60% of the information, and then forgetting about another ten percent of the information. Therefore, it is very important to take into account non-verbal signs in order to remember at least the purpose, the meaning of the addressee’s message that they so wanted to convey to you.

Differences between verbal and nonverbal communication

Forms of communicative interaction differ in the ways of formulating and transmitting information in the process of communication. Verbal communication means the use of speech directly (in its oral or written form), that is, information is presented using words. This form of communication is unique to humans.

Nonverbal interaction is the so-called sign language. Here facial expressions, postures, touches, movements, etc. are used. All these tools open up very wide possibilities that allow you to do without speech. An interesting point: both people and animals communicate using gestures. Remember when a dog wags its tail? When he is happy about something. But the cat expresses dissatisfaction with the same gesture. By baring its teeth, the animal warns that it will attack or defend itself. And if he looks timidly, from under his forehead, it means he regrets his behavior. Similar examples can be listed endlessly.

Typically, information conveyed nonverbally is usually much more truthful than what people express verbally. This is due to the fact that it is not so easy to control your own facial expressions and gestures. Often a person immediately has everything he feels written on his face. But telling lies in words or in text can be very easy.

It is more difficult to lie in a personal conversation than in online correspondence or by telephone. When communicating face-to-face, a person may notice that the interlocutor’s facial expression does not correspond to the words spoken. For example, people are clearly hiding something if during a conversation they try not to look you in the eyes, and their hands do not find a place for themselves, rearrange objects, etc. Obviously, it is much easier to lie with the help of verbal communication than with communication in sign language and facial expressions.

In the process of communicative interaction, not only the moment of delivering information is important, but also its perception by the interlocutor. In order to understand the essence of a conversation, a person should be attentive and use logical thinking. But gestures and facial expressions are perceived intuitively, unconsciously. In addition, when communicating through speech, a language barrier or some misunderstanding may arise due to differences in cultures, traditions, nationalities, etc.

For nonverbal communication, such barriers are not important; they disappear altogether. A smile in any corner of the world signifies friendliness and a good mood, and to greet a person, you just need to wave your hand. Therefore, if you find yourself abroad and the speech barrier has become an obstacle to communication for you, you can perfectly convey your message with gestures. And this proves that nonverbal communication is perhaps more effective than verbal communication.

Types of Verbal Communication

Types of verbal communication include:

  • Conversation in the form of conversation, exchange of opinions

That is, this is a method of communicative interaction, during which each of the participants (there may be two or more) expresses their point of view on the subject under discussion. It is understood that the conversation is conducted in a calm, relaxed manner, and any of the interlocutors can express their own opinion. Here you can ask questions, find out important details, and clarify any ambiguities. Conversation can be very useful and even necessary if there is an urgent question or problem that requires clarification and solution. This form of conversation, such as an interview, involves a dialogue that is specially organized on a given topic.

  • Conversation in the form of an argument

Here, in the process of communication, it is the opposing points of view of the participants that are expressed. That is, opinions do not coincide, views on the issue under discussion are not the same, everyone defends his position, gives arguments, fights and tries to prove that he is right.

A dispute is a type of verbal communication, which in Russian is also called controversy, discussion, dispute or debate.

For example, dispute comes from the Latin words disputar (to reason) and disputatio (debate). Previously, a dispute meant the defense of a scientific work, after writing which a person was awarded an academic degree. Now this exact meaning is no longer attached to this word. Nowadays, a debate is a public controversial discussion, the topic of which (social or scientific) is chosen in advance.

Another form of verbal communication is discussion. The word comes from the Latin discusso (research, analysis, consideration) and denotes a public debate, during which the interlocutors express their opinions, compare, contrast them and find the only correct approach to the problem under discussion. During the discussion, the participants themselves agree with the correct point of view, therefore this method of verbal communication is one of the most effective.

Participants in the discussion should, if possible, adhere to certain rules; either all those present or only some of them can express their opinions. The discussion is led by the chairman, and everyone else participates in it on equal terms. Those present can listen and are free to speak if they wish; special speakers will not be appointed. For the discussion of special issues, rules are established (either strict or allowing variations), and the appointed chairman monitors its compliance.

We recommend

“Psychology of negotiations: 10 total mistakes leading to collapse” Read more

Otherwise, disputes take place in the form of polemics. The term comes from the Greek polemicos (warlike, hostile). Controversy is a tougher type of dispute, when there is a confrontation of opinions, disagreement of the parties, in which opposition manifests itself, an obvious struggle of beliefs and statements. Issues on which participants express fundamental disagreement are brought up for discussion; they try their best to prove the correctness of their point of view and the fallacy of the positions of their opponents.

Polemics as a form of verbal communication aims to overcome the enemy and convince one of the unconditional correctness of one’s opinion. This is the difference between polemics and discussion and dispute, where the parties are ready to study all the judgments and jointly come to a common correct decision.

At the same time, it is important that participants in polemics that touch upon serious socially important issues do not set themselves the goal of “just to win.” We are talking about serious aspects here, so the task of the speakers is to adhere to strong principles and identify what exactly can interfere with the harmonious development of society.

In polemics, the one who has the art of persuasion is strong. Here it is important to be able not only to clearly express your thoughts, but also to provide convincing scientific arguments for them.

The wording of debate comes from the French debat (argument). And the word debate was used in the 17th century in Russian.

Secrets of success in business verbal communication

Negotiations are an integral part of running any business. It is there that partners negotiate deals, sign contracts, etc. Your success and profitability of your business will largely depend on how well you know how to communicate, convey your point of view, and convince. Essentially, if you have good verbal business communication skills, then the business will flourish and generate income.

Equally important is the ability to inspire everyone around you with your ideas and enthusiasm, family members, team members, even your bosses. It's good if you can consider short-sighted decisions and dissuade people from implementing them. In essence, this is the foundation of verbal business communication.

Even ancient people at some point realized that reaching agreement on controversial issues was possible not only through military action. Yes, with spears and arrows you can easily get rid of dissenting opponents, subjugate the weak and force them to work for you, but in the heat of the struggle, your loved ones will also die. It is possible that at one time a simple survival instinct worked, but the person realized that negotiations, especially those conducted competently, are much more effective in helping to solve problems.

You can give a lot of examples of what methods people resorted to in negotiations at one time or another. Someone was waving a pistol left and right, and there were entire groups that sought influence by force. Somewhere in the far East, a joker walked around an old bazaar who, thanks to his sharp mind and sense of humor, was able to resolve any unexpected conflict. And the wise decisions of King Solomon will forever remain in history as the most competent and far-sighted.

  • Masterfully conducted negotiations are half the success of any business

We can talk about competent technology for building verbal communication forever; this is an important and often discussed topic. And the issue of improving negotiation skills always remains relevant.

Where to gain this skill? It will appear with experience, here you should constantly practice, analyze mistakes (both your own and others), and learn lessons. Of course, the desire to learn and improve is important here. First, you study the issue theoretically, then train in the practical use of the acquired knowledge, evaluate the results, correct weak points, and then do it all over again. Work, work and more work. This is the only way you will gain serious skills, hone your skills in verbal communication and be able to negotiate competently and effectively.

In fact, you can work on improving your negotiation skills throughout your life; there are no limits or restrictions. With new acquired experience, you only hone your own skills even better.

No matter how much experience a person has in negotiating, there is no limit to perfection. Anyone who believes that they have reached the pinnacle of mastery in this matter simply does not want to continue to develop. You can and definitely need to constantly hone your skills.

  • What makes a successful negotiation

To achieve high skill in negotiations, you should not only learn the basics of verbal communication, but also constantly improve your own skills.

What are the components of successful negotiations? Everything is important here, the smallest details, including sounds, smells, taste, color perception and the form of contact with the interlocutor. In the process of communication, this is reflected in the words spoken, the gestures a person uses, facial expressions, voice intonation, etc.

There are certain foundations for the formation of verbal communication, on which any negotiations are built. Сommunico translated from Latin means “I make it common, I connect, I communicate.” That is, the essence of communications is to establish a connection between people, to establish a stable, understandable and accessible exchange of messages for both parties.

In the process of communication, information is transformed from verbal to non-verbal form or in the reverse order.

In simple terms, information that exists in the head of one of the interlocutors is transmitted to another (one or more) using some verbal or non-verbal signals. And here it is important that these signals are as clear as possible. Then we can assume that communication was built correctly and the negotiations were successful. If we use the terminology of professional psychologists, then receiving and assimilation of information is called internalization, and giving information to others is called exteriorization.

It is not always possible to establish communication in such a way that the channels of output and input of information perfectly correspond to each other. Here you should pay attention to how the interlocutor reacts non-verbally to messages, what his internal state is at the time of receiving them. A person can be surprised, show joy, anger, agree or disagree, etc. And these reactions are expressed in the form of verbal signals, that is, some exclamations, phrases.

The functions of verbal communication are not to simply give or receive information, but to build a common process that is meaningful for both parties. That is, it is important that one participant in the communication expresses his thought, and the other hears it, realizes and accepts it.

Effective communication is precisely built on the fact that the parties first exchange information, digest it, and then together comprehend the essence of the issue being discussed.

  • Techniques for conducting effective negotiations

Every conversation begins with a greeting. To do this, you can use different phrases, for example, “Good morning!”, That is, you wish your interlocutor a good start to the day. Or a simple word “Hello!”, which implies a wish for health. The greeting question “How are you?” you show interest and seem to invite them to talk. Or you greet a person with the phrase “It’s so good that you came”, “I’m very glad to see you!”, which undoubtedly demonstrates your respectful attitude.

At the beginning of negotiations, these so-called emotional strokes are extremely important; they set the partner up for positive communication, as if they give confidence in advance that everything will go well and the interaction will be useful and fruitful for both parties.

Of great importance is such a moment as addressing the interlocutor by name. Always remember that one’s own name is something that a person is pleased to hear always and under any circumstances (after all, that’s what parents, family members and other close people call him). Use this fact in verbal communication. Be sure to address your interlocutor by name, and in no case make mistakes in his pronunciation (this is unpleasant and even offensive to hear), however, you should also not repeat the first name and patronymic too often, so as not to get an obvious overkill.

We recommend

“Sales scripts for managers: writing tips and application rules” Read more

Depending on how the negotiations are structured, you can add social strokes, expressed approximately in the following phrases: “You are immediately visible as a professional”, “Your subordinates praised you very much, and I see that it was not in vain”, “I have heard a lot about you” , “Your long-time partners highly recommended you to me,” “I heard that you always keep your promises.” This is very reminiscent of moments when a mother praises her child: “How good you are!”, “You are the best child in the world,” “I’m proud of you,” and so on.

  • The "Mirror" principle

The way you behave and communicate will certainly affect the people around you. Thus, by looking at the reactions of others, you can draw conclusions about what is wrong in your behavior, what people perceive as normal, and where changes would be helpful.

That is, in the process of verbal communication you receive feedback from others. They, like a mirror, reflect the results of all your words and actions, and you, in turn, give a verbal reaction to the behavior of your interlocutor and can thus control the course of negotiations.

It is important to convey to your partner information about how his behavior causes you to react. On the one hand, you can perceive his words and actions in a positive way, and therefore support the chosen line of negotiations. But you may not like what is happening, then you will have a negative attitude towards everything your partner says and make efforts to correct the situation and correct the behavior of your interlocutor.

All these are options for feedback when building verbal communication. You can show another, seemingly neutral, reaction, namely, tell your partner that he, of course, can have his own point of view, which, without a doubt, is professional and valuable, but your vision of the issue is still different.

Sign language

Gestures are usually called socially practiced movements that can convey a person’s emotional state. There are a very large number of gestures, and they are all classified according to the purpose of transmitting information by a person and his internal state. Gestures are:

  • illustrators (complement the message);
  • regulators (the person’s attitude is visible);
  • emblems (common symbols);
  • affectors (transmission of emotions);
  • assessments;
  • confidence;
  • uncertainty;
  • self-control;
  • expectations;
  • denial;
  • location;
  • dominance;
  • insincerity;
  • courtship.

By how a person behaves during a conversation, one can determine his internal state, how interested he is in the exchange of information, and whether there is sincerity.

Techniques of business verbal communication

Remember the famous law of the jungle? It sounds like this: “You and I are of the same blood, you and I.” This is an excellent example of how to establish verbal communication, build dialogues and negotiate.

The effectiveness of communication will increase many times over if the interlocutor feels a kindred spirit in you, sees that your life values ​​and priorities, although they do not completely coincide with his own views, are generally close and understandable.

This approach echoes the mirror principle discussed above. You reveal yourself to a person (“mirror”), and in response he willingly demonstrates (reflects) his attitude towards you, your behavior, actions, words.

In the modern world, this technique is actively used for conducting all kinds of negotiations and meetings. Such events are organized in suitable places (taking into account the interests of the participants), a relaxed atmosphere is created where, over a cup of tea or coffee (and perhaps a cigarette or stronger drinks), people have the opportunity to communicate freely and with pleasure.

And here the main thing is not to forget about the main goal of the negotiations. Do not put too much pressure on your partner or demonstrate excessive openness bordering on intrusiveness. In response, he may withdraw, and further communication will become difficult.

Experts in verbal communications identify four parallel levels at which, as a rule, the communication process takes place:

  1. A set of well-known stereotypes and templates (clichés).
  2. Real events and accurate facts.
  3. Opinions of communication participants, their own judgments and ideas.
  4. Emotional manifestations.

What are templates and clichés for? They make it possible to start and end a conversation correctly, and to build communication in accordance with generally accepted standards and norms. Yes, we are talking about stereotypes and memorized rituals, but it is with their help that you demonstrate to your interlocutor your openness, willingness to listen and accept the information being conveyed. At the beginning of a conversation, they usually ask a question, state their own point of view, or voice some important fact.

How to start a conversation? For example, use the so-called presence effect. Find something interesting to discuss in your surroundings and start talking about it (but don’t look around too openly, do it carefully, as if by chance).

Another topic for communication is the interlocutor himself, but such a conversation is more difficult to start. To push your partner to interact and get a response from him, you can use the following phrases: “Do you think I’m right?”, “What do you think about this?”, “Do you agree?” etc.

How else can you engage a person in a conversation? Talk about something interesting, about the events of your own life, a book you read, touch on any topic that can become the basis for pleasant communication.

An indispensable condition for effective verbal communication is genuine interest in the partner and his point of view. It is important for a person to see that you are truly interested in him, and then your interaction will be as productive as possible.

Communication as a way to carry out life activities for a person

Well-known psychologists have determined that a person makes two types of contacts in his life:

  1. With nature.
  2. With people.

These contacts are called communication. There are many definitions for this concept. Communication is called:

  • a special form of interaction between people and their interpersonal relationships;
  • a friendly or business relationship between a person and another person;
  • interaction of a group of people (starting from 2 people) for the exchange of information, knowledge of the surrounding world, which can be of an affective-evaluative nature;
  • process of conversation, conversation, dialogue;
  • mental contact between people, which manifests itself through a sense of community, performing joint actions, and exchanging information.
( 2 ratings, average 4.5 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]