Sides west east. The cardinal directions on the compass in Russian letters

Types of compasses

A compass is a small device that in appearance resembles a wristwatch with an arrow. The correct direction is most often determined using the following types of instruments:

  1. Magnetic. The most popular type. In the central zone of the compass there is a rotating arrow. Its upper end is directed to the north, the lower end to the south. The advantages of the product include compact size and ease of operation. Among the disadvantages, they note the impossibility of use near electrical networks and railways.
  2. Electromagnetic. In appearance, the device resembles an electronic watch; the operating principle is similar to the magnetic variety. In addition to the operating mechanism, the device is equipped with special chips that read location data. Subsequently, the cardinal directions are displayed on the display. The advantages of this type include compact size, light weight, and the ability to be worn on the hand. The main disadvantages are high cost and dependence on battery charge.
  3. Gyro-compass. A rapidly rotating body, which is invariably directed along the main axis in world space, turns to the north, east, south or west. The advantages of the device include high accuracy and lack of dependence on magnetic fields. Among the disadvantages are the complexity of the design, regular maintenance, and difficulties during operation.

Depending on the purpose, children's, geological, and engineering compasses are distinguished. Multifunctional models, in addition to determining direction, have many additional devices that simplify orientation on the ground and help in solving specific problems.






The design of the device seems complicated at first glance. Determining the cardinal directions using a compass is carried out thanks to special markings and many moving components. Lens models consist of several basic elements:

  1. Lid. Serves to protect the floating dial from damage. Consists of luminous aiming dots and threads.
  2. The basis. Contains several moving components. The floating dial is located in the middle, rotates freely, and there are luminous figures in the form of arrows and letters. The outer scale indicates millimeters, the inner scale indicates degrees. The frame is glass with a fixed line indicator. The frame ring makes a characteristic crackling sound when moving. Each of them is equal to 3º. One full circle contains 120 clicks.
  3. Rear sight. Data indicating the cardinal directions is read from the dial using this component. Objects are detected using an aiming slit and a front sight. The rear one closes the device; for operation it is necessary to open it more than 45º.

The markings on the compass are always the same, but the equipment is different. The most complex are considered to be military devices, which have a solid body, a lid with glass inserts, and a dial that glows in the dark. The devices are often equipped with a clinometer, a thread for fixing on a tripod, and a bubble level.


A scale and points of reference are applied to the compass disk indicating the cardinal directions. The latter serve to designate eastern, western, northern, southern, as well as intermediate directions. On many devices, icons are printed in English:

  1. N (north) - north side.
  2. S (south) - south side.
  3. E (east) - eastern side.
  4. W (west) - western side.

According to the clockwise movement, it looks like this: the north will be on top, the east on the right, the south on the bottom, and the west on the left. Some models of compasses have bearings marked in Russian:

  • N - north;
  • Yu - south;
  • B—east;
  • W - west.

To find the right direction of the world, it is recommended to keep the compass horizontal. Next, you need to turn it so that the northern tip points to S. Decoding the rhumbs usually does not cause problems, the main thing is to understand the icons that device manufacturers use.

You can determine the location of the cardinal directions using a magnetic compass not only in open space. An apartment, a forest, a cave is quite suitable, but you need to be away from the railway or power lines.


Determination of cardinal directions on a compass occurs thanks to the arrow. Parallel lines are called north-south. The ends of the element are painted in two colors:

  1. Red. Always points towards the north.
  2. Blue. Accordingly, it turns in a southerly direction. Depending on the compass model, this arrow is painted black or white.

The red arrow shows where north is . It is known that at the top of the globe is the North Pole, where the blue tip turns. Below is the South Pole, the scarlet side of the element tends to it.

Thanks to the laws of physics, the compass needle works on a different principle. That is, the blue tip shows the South Pole, the red tip shows the North Pole. This is explained by the fact that bodies with the same charges do not attract, but repel.

Some compass manufacturers use non-standard color schemes. Pink or red arrows usually point to the south, and green arrows to the north. The latter can be painted in different shades.

Red arrow points north

Terms of use

Working with a compass is easy. First of all, it is important to remember that the device reacts to metal objects, distorting the readings. To clarify the location, you must place the device on a flat horizontal surface.

Experts do not recommend holding it in your hands, since even minor fluctuations can change the values. A stone or stump is ideal for this purpose.

To find out the designation of the sides, you need to perform several steps:

  1. On the compass, remove the lock holding the arrows and wait until they stop rotating.
  2. The stopped arrow will point north.
  3. The device is turned so that the 0º division of the dial coincides with the north direction.
  4. You need to turn your face in the same direction as the arrow pointing north. The south will be behind your back, the east side will be on your right, and the west side will be on your left.

If you have a compass and a map, you can use both of these items for orientation. You must act according to the instructions:

  1. A compass with symbols in English or Russian is attached to the map.
  2. Both objects are rotated so that the northern tip of the arrow is directed towards the top frame of the card.
  3. The arrow should be parallel to the side frame.

If you look at a map and at the same time orient yourself in the direction indicated by the compass, you can accurately find out the location of a certain object. When working with the device, do not artificially rotate or jam the pointer, or tilt the device.

The compass icon has the same meaning as the device: a landmark, a search for movement on the Earth and in life in general. The symbol is often used when creating sketches of tattoos.

A compass is a universal device that is widely used for navigation. The dial is equipped with letters and bearings, allowing you to easily determine the cardinal directions. The device is used by military personnel, sailors, tourists, as well as ordinary people who love to travel.

If you look at the map and at the same time navigate in the direction indicated by the compass, you can find out the exact location of a certain object


Compass photography. Compass with Russian letters indicating cardinal directions

A compass is a device that facilitates orientation by pointing to the Earth's magnetic poles and cardinal directions.

You can download this simple drawing for free to use for any purpose. For example, for placement on a nameplate or sticker.

How to draw a drawing:

You can draw a drawing either on a sheet of paper or using specialized programs. No special engineering knowledge is required to complete simple sketch drawings.

Articles on the topic (click to view)

');> //–> ');> //–> A sketch drawing is a drawing made “by hand”, observing the approximate proportions of the depicted object and containing sufficient data for the manufacture of the product.

The design drawing with all the technological data for manufacturing can only be completed by a qualified engineer.

To designate in the drawing, you must perform the following operations:

1. Draw an image; 2. Add dimensions (see example); 3. Specify the technical requirements for manufacturing (read more about the technical requirements below in the article).

It is most convenient to draw on a computer. Subsequently, the drawing can be printed on paper using a printer or plotter. There are many specialized programs for drawing on a computer. Both paid and free.

This image shows how simple and quickly drawing can be done using computer programs.

List of programs for drawing on a computer:

1. KOMPAS-3D; 2. AutoCAD; 3. NanoCAD; 4. FreeCAD; 5. QCAD.

Having studied the principles of drawing in one of the programs, it is not difficult to switch to working in another program. Drawing methods in any program are not fundamentally different from each other. We can say that they are identical and differ from each other only in convenience and the presence of additional functions.

Technical requirements:

For the drawing, it is necessary to indicate dimensions sufficient for manufacturing, maximum deviations and roughness.

The technical requirements for the drawing should indicate:

1) Manufacturing and control method, if they are the only ones that guarantee the required quality of the product; 2) Indicate a specific technological method that guarantees that certain technical requirements for the product are met.

A drawing is a projection image of a product or its element, one of the types of design documents containing data for the production and operation of the product.

A drawing is not a drawing. The drawing is made according to the dimensions and scale of the real product (structure) or part of the product. Therefore, to carry out drawing work, the work of an engineer with sufficient experience in producing drawing work is necessary (however, to beautifully display a product for booklets, it is quite possible that you will need the services of an artist who has an artistic view of the product or part of it).

A drawing is a constructive image with necessary and sufficient information about dimensions, manufacturing method and operation. You can download the drawing presented on this page for free.

A drawing is an artistic image on a plane created by means of graphics (brush, pencil or specialized program).

A drawing can be either an independent document or part of a product (structure) and technical requirements related to surfaces processed together. Instructions for joint processing are placed on all drawings involved in the joint processing of products.

For more information on drawings, technical requirements for design and indication of manufacturing methods, see GOST 2.109-73. See the list of standards for the development of design documentation here.

Information for ordering drawings:

In our design organization, you can order a drawing of any product (both parts and assemblies), which will include a drawing of a compass, as an element of the design documentation of the product as a whole. Our design engineers will develop documentation in the shortest possible time in strict accordance with your technical specifications.

How to correctly determine the cardinal directions using a compass

The compass is one of the most ancient instruments on Earth. Thanks to it, you can quickly understand how to navigate the terrain and correctly determine the direction. How a compass works, how to use it correctly and what knowledge and skills are needed to fully master this device, you will learn in the instructions and video review.

A little about the compass design

The location of the cardinal directions is sprayed along the device's dial , which helps to correctly navigate the area if there is no magnetic or electromagnetic interference. The instrument's needle invariably shows the north magnetic radian, marked with the first tip, while the second will indicate the south. You just need to figure out what indication the symbols on the compass have.

When orienting, it is necessary to take into account that the compass data does not coincide one hundred percent with the geographical ones, since the needle tries to be placed along the magnetic meridian, showing the geomagnetic poles of the earth, which are not identical to the geographical ones. This error in the light directions of the planet on the compass is called “magnetic declination”, and it does not have a stable value.

How to determine cardinal directions

The compass mechanism is simple and ingenious - a magnetized needle, placed in a case under transparent glass in the center of the dial (dial), when released from the stopper, will show the north pole with its north tail, and the south pole, respectively, with its south tail. The limb is marked with the cardinal directions using letters. If the device is domestic, then the letters will be taken from the Russian alphabet, but if the device was not made in our country, then in accordance with international designations, Latin.

How to determine cardinal directions

I bought a telescope with auto-aiming and they gave me a compass, before setting it up, the telescope must be pointed to the geographic North, how can I understand with this compass where is north, etc. I read articles on the net, I didn’t understand, on this compass one side of the arrow is red, the other is white, who can explain how and what) Thank you in advance.


1 step

First of all, remove the compass from the “brake”. “Brake” is a special lever that prevents the arrow from moving freely.

Step 2

After removing the compass from the “brake”, the arrow will point north. As you turn, connect the “0” or “360” reading on the bottom of the compass to the direction of the arrow pointing north. If there are 2 arrows on a compass, then the blue part, the shorter part, or the arrow-shaped part most often points north.

  • Step 3
  • To start moving in the right direction, calculate the angle at which you need to move relative to the north on the map (on maps, north is at the top, south at the bottom).
  • Step 4
  • After using the compass, be sure to put it on the “brake”.
  • Step 5

North, south, west, east: find out the location

There are many ways to determine cardinal directions. Using a compass is the easiest one. But the location of north, south, west and east can be found out using other methods.

North, south, west, east: location on the map

To find the cardinal directions on a map, you need to remember that, regardless of scale and purpose, north, south, west and east are always located the same way: the north side is always on top, the south is below, the west is on the left, and the east is on the right.

North is always at the top on the map

North is always at the top on the map

If you have a compass, the task is even simpler: you need to combine the route laid out in accordance with the map with its arrows, and follow it on the ground.

Orientation on a map is possible without a compass. To do this, you need to go to some object marked on the map: a railway track, a road, a natural body of water, then compare the picture of the area with the one shown on the map, and then plot your further route along it.

When approaching a large object, you need to check your direction with what is indicated on the map. This way you can check if there are any deviations from the route.

North, south, west, east: location on the compass

Determining the cardinal directions using a compass is a simple task, provided that this device is used correctly. First you need to remember what symbols mark the cardinal directions.

North is denoted by the English letter N, i.e. “north”, south – S (“south”), west – W (“west”), and east – E (“east”).

To determine north, you need to turn the arrow with the main side (usually it is painted blue or simply marked as the main side) towards the N designation.

The N side of the arrow points north

The N side of the arrow points north

To correctly determine the cardinal directions with a compass, you need to follow the rules:

  • The device must be held strictly horizontally.
  • The compass must be turned carefully until the arrow with the marked end stops at the N mark
  • Some compass models are equipped with a special arrow that is fixed in the direction of a given route. Just twist it and follow the direction.
  • The built-in compass will help calculate azimuths.

In order not to deviate from the route, you need to choose a large building as a landmark and follow it. Having reached the object, check the compass direction again and move on.

Orientation by celestial bodies

When you don’t have a map or a compass with you, the heavenly bodies will help you navigate the area: the moon, the sun, the stars. The North Pole is where the North Star is located when you face it. Accordingly, the South Pole will be behind you. To find the North Star, you don’t need to make any special efforts - it shines brighter than other stars in the sky.

When you are in the Southern Hemisphere, you should navigate by the Southern Cross constellation. It consists of five stars, four of which create a cross, slightly offset to the side. If you mentally extend the long axis of the cross, formed by two bright stars, towards the ground, it will indicate the southern direction. Starting from this landmark, it will not be difficult to determine the other cardinal directions.

Navigation by stars in the northern hemisphere

Navigation by stars in the northern hemisphere

At night, you can also determine the location of the cardinal directions, and the moon will help. To do this, you need to determine the phases of the moon: in the first quarter the moon is growing, the “horns” of the month will point to the left.

The second quarter is the full moon, and the third is the waning moon, while the “horns” of the month will be turned to the right, resembling the letter S. The moon located in the first quarter will be in the south by seven o’clock in the evening, and in the west by one o’clock in the morning .

If the moon is full, it will be visible in the east by seven o'clock in the evening, and in the south by one o'clock in the morning. The waning moon is in the east at one o'clock in the morning, and in the south by seven o'clock in the morning.

Determining cardinal directions based on natural phenomena

Using natural landmarks located in a forest or other area, you can easily determine belonging to different parts of the world. In the forest you can navigate by anthills. Their flat side always faces south, and the anthills themselves are located on the south side of the trees.

If you pay attention to the location of moss on top of tree trunks and stumps, you will notice that moss grows mainly on the north side. The slopes of the mountains on the southern side are covered with heat-loving trees and plants, for example, oaks and pine trees.

The northern slopes are characterized by fir and spruce growing there.

Most of the branches tend to grow on the warm, southern side

Most of the branches tend to grow on the warm, southern side

You can observe fir trees: when the weather is hot, resin begins to exude from the southern side of the trunks. Most often, mushrooms grow on the north side near trees.

When navigating by natural signs and phenomena, it is necessary to remember that these sources are not 100% accurate, but if you put them together, you can create a clear picture for orientation in parts of the world.

The cardinal directions on the compass: where are north, south, east and west

A compass is a device designed to determine the cardinal directions and navigate the terrain. All magnetic compasses have a needle, and most models have a disk with a scale, numbers and letters printed on it. We will talk further about what they mean, how to use them and how to use a compass to find out the location of the cardinal directions - north, south, east and west.

The direction of south or north on the compass is indicated by an arrow, and the scale is then “adjusted” to it.

Using the compass online

To determine the location of your apartment relative to the cardinal directions, and also to understand where the windows of your room face, you can use the online map from Google below.

This map with cardinal directions works correctly with the Google Chrome browser and other browsers based on the Chromium core, but when working with Firerox the resource has problems.

The operating principle of this service is as follows. There is a large compass on the screen, you just need to find your city on the map, and then your house, and in accordance with the compass image (N - north, S - south, W - west, E - east) see which side of the world you are facing the windows of your home are directed. Then, in relation to this, you can understand how correctly you are sleeping.

Feng Shui believes that if your head is positioned on:

  • North - this helps the development of intuition;
  • Northeast - will help in scientific activities;
  • East – guarantees a restful sleep;
  • Southeast - will help in developing determination;
  • South - will give fame and reputation;
  • South-West - will give help in Love;
  • West - bestows fertility;
  • North-west - will ensure true friendship.

North and South according to the starry sky

Don't worry if you get lost in the dark; several effective methods will help you find your way around without a compass.

polar Star

Since childhood, we have known about the existence of the North Star, which stands out among the many small lights in the sky. It is located in the constellation Ursa Minor.

Orientation by the stars

The North Star is located at the very top and has a bright light. It points north, but only if you are looking directly at it. Accordingly, the western side will be on your right, the eastern side on your left, and the southern side behind you.

Constellation Cassiopeia

Outwardly, it resembles the letter “M” when high in the sky, and the letter “W” when low above the horizon.


This constellation revolves around the North Star. The outermost and lowest star from the letter “M” is located at the same distance as the Big Dipper’s bucket.

South Cross

This method of determining terrain is only effective if you are in the southern hemisphere. Finding the Southern Cross constellation is not difficult. It appears in the shape of a cross and consists of four stars.

Correct definition of the Southern Cross

You will need the long part of the figure, its axis or the so-called pointer. We take the lower part of the axis as a basis, draw five segments from it equal in length to the axis. The end point will be in a southerly direction.

What does a compass look like and what parts does it consist of?

The simplest compass is a magnetic needle that rotates freely on an axis.
Have you ever tried to bring two magnets close to each other? On one side they repel, and on the other they attract. A compass works in exactly the same way. The role of one magnet is a magnetized arrow, and the role of the second is the planet Earth! Therefore, the compass needle always points to the North. There is also a liquid compass. It works in exactly the same way, it’s just that the arrow does not rest on the axis, but floats in the liquid. The viscous liquid allows you to avoid constant oscillations of the needle if you are trying to use the compass in shaking conditions (for example, in a moving vehicle). Using a compass, you can determine the location of the cardinal points, but this is clearly not enough for hiking in other directions, therefore, in addition to the arrow, there are other parts in the design of the device . The compass is housed in a round plastic case with a transparent top, through which a dial with divisions . To protect the fragile glass, some compasses have a cover. When traveling, it can be difficult to find such a small but necessary device in a huge backpack, and the designers took care of tourists by providing it with a strap for wearing on the hand. On the side surface you can see a small metal plate; this is a brake that secures the arrow in a stationary position. On the movable upper part there is a sighting device - two protrusions, one with a slot, the other with a front sight.

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The cardinal directions are... What are the cardinal directions?

The request for "Southwest" is redirected here; see also other meanings.

  • In geography, the cardinal direction
    is one of the four main directions (north, south, west, east).
  • The directions north and south are determined by the Earth's poles, and west and east by the rotation of the planet around its axis.
  • On modern geographical maps, the north side is always at the top, in this case the south is at the bottom, the west is on the left, and the east is on the right.
  • Since ancient times, people have determined the approximate southern direction by the position of the sun at its zenith, the eastern direction by the place of sunrise, and the western direction by the place of sunset.
  • The principle of four sides was an important milestone in man's knowledge of the world around him.
  • Ancient maps, unlike modern ones, were oriented to the south.

When orienting a person in space, the principle of four sides is also used: “in front”, “behind”, “left”, “right”. In this case, the directions are not fixed and are chosen relative to the person himself.

The principle of fourfoldness is reflected in the folklore, customs, and religious rituals of many peoples, including Slavic ones:

  • “go to all four directions”;
  • Trypillian four-part altars were precisely oriented with their four crosses to the cardinal points, even if this direction diverged from the orientation of the walls of the house, etc.

Colors symbolizing cardinal directions

The traditional painting of the south end of the magnetic compass needle with red and the north end with black colors is an echo of ancient times. In the Assyrian calendar, the north was called the Black Country, the south was the Red Country, the east was the Green Country, and the west was the White Country. City gates in ancient China were painted accordingly.


To designate the cardinal directions, 4 Latin letters are often used: N, S, E, W, which corresponds to the first letters of the names of the cardinal directions in English - North (north), South (south), East (east), West (west).

Origin of the compass

The first compass was built almost two and a half thousand years ago in China and looked like a spoon, carved from magnetite and carefully polished.
It was installed on a perfectly smooth board. The handle of this spoon pointed to the south direction, so from Chinese the first name of the compass is translated as “in charge of the south.” Followers of Chinese scientists continued to design their own models of magnetic compasses, the design of which always had something in common: the needle of the device, as a rule, was a needle made of hardened iron. Even in ancient China, the birthplace of ferrous metallurgy, people knew that after heating and sudden cooling, metal acquires magnetic properties.

The first compasses had low accuracy: the error in readings was due to the high friction force of the pointing part on the base. This problem was solved in two ways. On the one hand, the compass needle was placed in a vessel with water and its center was fixed to a float so that it could rotate freely. On the other hand, both ends of the arrow had to be perfectly balanced, and the best way to achieve this was to make them exactly the same in size and weight.

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