The concept of socialization. Essence, stages and mechanisms of personality socialization

Each person represents a unity of the individual and the social. Being unique and inimitable individuals, we are at the same time part of society and follow the norms and rules of behavior accepted in it. The social environment is a prerequisite for human existence. Adaptation to it begins at birth and lasts throughout life. This process, which is accompanied by the assimilation of norms, rules, behavioral stereotypes and moral values, is called socialization.

Factors of socialization.

Socialization factors are the mechanisms through which the socialization process occurs. The main factors identified by social educator A.V. Mudrikom, three:

  1. Macro factors are global mechanisms that influence the social development of an individual (planet, space, state, country, society, government).
  2. Mesofactors are conditions that influence socialization, mainly on a territorial or ethnic basis (place and type of settlement, region, town, city, people, ethnicity).
  3. Microfactors are factors that have a direct impact on a person’s socialization (family, peers, school, place of study and work).

Each factor has an active element, thanks to which socialization occurs. For example, in a family there are parents, brothers, sisters, in school there are teachers and classmates. These elements are called agents of socialization.

Methodology for diagnosing the level of socialization of junior schoolchildren

To study the degree of familiarization of children with social norms, it is advisable to use a set of methods proposed by T.B. Potapenko. Using questionnaires, it is possible to determine the dynamics of socialization and the specification of an individual program of subsequent influences on an individual child.

The complex consists of three techniques:

  • A method for identifying the characteristics of a child’s socialization, consisting of three series of elections.
  • A projective technique for studying the dependence of a child’s emotional mood as a result of relationships with peers (author – V.R. Kislovskaya).
  • The technique for performing simultaneous sections, proposed by T.A. Repina.

As a result of this study, it is possible to determine the level of socialization of younger schoolchildren. It is advisable to carry it out with older preschoolers as well.

The overall goal of the set of questionnaires is to identify the child’s desire and desire to communicate with peers, as well as his motives and possibilities for social relationships.

The role of agents and institutions

Sociologists distinguish 2 groups of people who influence the development and formation of personality in the process of socialization:

  1. Primary - familiar people, or informal agents. These include members of a small community who are well known to each other: family, parents, neighbors;
  2. Secondary – strangers are formal agents or institutions. This is a set of people connected by formal relationships: kindergarten, school, company, enterprise, city, state, etc.

Both groups play different roles and influence the formation of personality in a certain direction:

The education and upbringing of a child from 0 to 3 years old occurs under the influence of the main agents: parents and immediate relatives. They form the motivation and primary attitude of the individual towards others.

  • After 3 years, the individual enters into relationships with additional agents: educators, teachers, doctors. Most preschool children actively master thinking and cognitive skills under the influence of informal agents.
  • At the age of 8 - 15 (school period) they are influenced by their peers, adults belonging to different social groups, the media, and the Internet. Such a diverse environment does not exclude a negative impact on the individual and the possibility of antisocial behavior.
  • Thus, by the age of 15-18, the personality is considered formed. In the future, other social institutions play their role. They use other means that influence her moral and psychological changes.

Forms of socialization

There are two forms of socialization – directed and undirected.

Directed (spontaneous) – is the spontaneous formation of social qualities as a result of a person’s presence in the immediate social environment (in the family, between colleagues, peers).

Directed socialization represents a system of methods of influence, specially developed by society, its institutions, organizations, with the goal of forming a personality in accordance with the prevailing values, interests, ideals, and goals in a given society.

Education is one of the ways of directed socialization. It is a consciously systematic, organized, purposeful process of influencing a developing personality, her behavior and consciousness, with the aim of developing specific concepts, principles, value orientations and social attitudes and preparing her for active social, cultural and industrial activities.

Both forms (directed, undirected) in certain circumstances can be consistent with each other or, conversely, come into conflict. The contradictions that arise often lead to conflict situations that complicate and impede the process of socialization of the individual.

The spontaneous form of socialization (undirected) is determined by the microsocial environment (close relatives, peers) and often contains many outdated and outdated rules, stereotypes, patterns, patterns of behavior. Along with a positive influence on the individual, it can also have a negative impact on the individual, pushing him towards negative ones that deviate from the norms established by society, which can lead to such a phenomenon as social pathology.

Undirected socialization without the inclusion of directed means can be detrimental to the formation of a person, the social group of this individual and society as a whole. Therefore, it is very important to supplement it and transform it into targeted corrective influences of targeted socialization.

But directed socialization does not always lead to a positive educational result, which is especially evident when it is used for inhumane purposes, such as, for example, the activities of various destructive religious sects, the inculcation of fascist ideology, and the propaganda of racist sentiments. Therefore, a directed form of socialization can lead to a positive formation of personality only if it is carried out in accordance with moral rules, moral criteria, freedom of conscience, responsibility and the principles of a democratic society.


Every society has socialization mechanisms through which people convey information about social reality to each other. In sociological terms, there are some “translators” of social experience. These are means that transmit accumulated experience from generation to generation, contributing to the fact that each new generation begins to socialize. Such translators include various sign systems, cultural elements, educational systems, and social roles. Socialization mechanisms are divided into two categories: socio-psychological and socio-pedagogical.

Socio-psychological mechanisms:

  • Imprinting is the imprinting of information on the receptor and subconscious levels. More common in infancy.
  • Existential pressure - the assimilation of language and norms of behavior at an unconscious level.
  • Imitation is following a model, voluntary or involuntary.
  • Reflection is an internal dialogue during which a person critically thinks about and then accepts or rejects certain social values.

Social and pedagogical mechanisms:

  • Traditional - a person’s assimilation of prevailing stereotypes, which occurs, as a rule, at an unconscious level.
  • Institutional - triggered by a person’s interaction with various institutions and organizations.
  • Stylized - functions when included in any subcultures.
  • Interpersonal - turns on whenever there is contact with persons who are subjectively significant to a person.

The concept of socialization in socio-psychological science

Many scientists have been studying the process of social adaptation and interaction of a person with his environment for several centuries. In all their research one can find common postulates, which are the basis for defining the term “socialization” itself. Perhaps the most comprehensive explanation of this concept belongs to the founder of the science of sociology, Auguste Comte. The scientist viewed society itself as a living organism that develops in harmony and perfection. As a result of this, a person, as a unit of a given whole, must follow generally accepted moral laws. Auguste Comte proposed to call the process of integration of an individual into society socialization. The first and fundamental institution of such interaction between a person and the environment is the family, which the scientist called “an eternal school and a model of society.”

Socialization functions

This mechanism is of great importance for the development of personality. Among the main functions there are:

  • Normative and regulatory. This means that absolutely everything that surrounds a person can have one influence or another on him. In this case, we are talking about family, country politics, religion and much more.
  • Personally transformative. In the process of communicating with other people, a person begins to show his individual qualities and characteristics. Thus, it is separated from the total mass.
  • Value-oriented. This category is reminiscent of the regulatory category. However, in this case, a person adopts from everything around him not experience, but certain values.
  • Information and communication. In this case, the individual’s lifestyle forms its way of life based on the experience of communicating with various representatives of society.
  • Creative. If a person is brought up in the right environment, this will help a person learn to improve the world around him.

Methods of education socialization

In the process of introducing a child to society, the following mechanisms of personality formation exist:

  • Identification of the child with his role as a member of society. A person masters various forms of behavior, attitudes, norms and values. The main method of identification is the personal example of more experienced members of society. The biographies of famous people may also be suitable as an example.
  • Social orientation is another mechanism for shaping the level of socialization of students. It is associated with the individual’s identification of his needs and awareness of the possibility of achieving them in society. Here the pedagogical requirement acts as a method as a guiding factor in human actions.
  • Adaptation is another mechanism of human socialization. This is the process of adaptation of an individual to the environment, its norms, rules and traditions. The exercise method greatly facilitates the child’s social adaptation.
  • Suggestion as the appropriation of social experience on an unconscious, emotional level. What is important here is a certain conformity of personality, which is achieved by the method of verbal influence. In conditions of social tolerance, the norms and traditions of society are better assimilated.
  • The mechanism of social presentation involves maintaining a positive impression of the individual about himself when interacting with others. A person, in essence, plays the role assigned to him by society. As a result, the imposed behavior over time becomes an integral part of the child’s activities. The assignment method plays an important role in this process.
  • The mechanisms that shape the levels of socialization include facilitation (the influence of the behavior of others on the child’s consciousness) and inhibition (behavior that regulates the motives of a person’s actions). Here, methods that accelerate the dynamics of social processes are competition and punishment. Only by using all of the above methods of education can a high level of personal socialization be achieved.

Definition of socialization

Before discussing this topic, it is necessary to understand what socialization as such is.

Psychological science says that socialization

is the process of an individual’s entry into a social system, mastering its norms, rules of behavior, values, knowledge and skills, and psychological attitudes.

Another, “unofficial” definition says that socialization is what allows a person to live in harmony with the world around him. How is this harmony achieved?

Man is the only creature who, let’s say, is not born by himself. Any animal at birth belongs to a certain species - the same one to which its parents belonged. And only a person, in order to obtain the characteristics inherent to his species, is obliged to undergo a long and complex process of socialization, individual forms of which occur throughout his entire life. In fact, if a newborn is left in the forest and there he randomly survives, then he will not learn to speak, or build, or even hunt. Certain forms of learning, of course, exist in many animals, but they take place only for a short time; an animal that has not undergone “socialization” still has a great chance of surviving and producing offspring, since the basic skills are embedded in its instincts. Long and complex socialization is observed only in higher primates, which proves that this phenomenon did not arise suddenly, but was inherited from our animal ancestors and evolved over thousands of years.

The issue of socialization: a historical excursion

Since ancient times, society has been perceived as an institution of morality and life values. The education of a citizen by preparing him for life in a partnership, the formation of his main social role were considered as the socialization of the individual.

In Sparta, people became a full-fledged member of the paramilitary community at the age of thirty. Before this, boys were raised in a strict manner. Moreover, caring for a healthy society, the elders threw sick babies from a high mountain, not giving them a chance to survive. The state was the fundamental institution for the education of its full member. Until the age of seven, boys were under the auspices of their family. However, at the age of seven they were taken to special camps, where physical and military education began. Girls were also subjected to similar training. By the way, in Sparta no attention was paid to the intellectual development of youth. Reading and arithmetic were taught to a minimum extent. Such socialization was one-sided, which subsequently led to the decline of the great country.

According to the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, the polis (state) is fundamental in the education of a citizen. However, unlike the Spartans, the Greeks prioritized achieving the common good. A person must benefit the society in which he lives. In Plato's Republic there was equality between the sexes. Girls could learn the laws of the world just like boys. However, the policy is a comprehensive control body of a person’s life from his birth to his last days. In educating a person, it is necessary to take into account her talents and inclinations. Only in this case will the level of human socialization increase.

The comprehensive development of a child’s personality was a priority in Ancient Athens. Unlike Sparta, there is a humanistic approach here, which is reflected in the writings of Lucian. It is a person, beautiful in soul and body, who is the greatest value of society.

The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, unlike his teacher Plato, giving the palm in the socialization of the individual to the state, does not at all belittle the role of the family in raising a full member of society. It is in the family that the formation of a citizen begins. The man himself was considered by the philosopher as a full-fledged unit of society. However, without a circle of his own kind, the individual becomes an animal not adapted to the community. The highest good is the formation of the social qualities of a citizen. The levels of socialization of an individual, according to Aristotle, include the harmonious development of the physical, moral and intellectual sides of a person.

Types and agents of socialization.


- the process of an individual’s assimilation of patterns of behavior, psychological attitudes, social norms and values, knowledge, skills that allow him to function successfully in society, beginning in infancy and ending in old age.

Types of socialization: 1. Primary socialization

. This stage covers the process of formation and development of personality, that is, the process of caring for, raising and educating children primarily in the family, carried out by those agents of socialization who are in direct and regular contact with the child in early and late childhood. During primary socialization, passive assimilation of information, skills, and ideas predominates.

2. Secondary socialization.

This stage covers the rest of the person’s “adult” life. At this stage, the development of the social environment occurs consciously, most of the information coming from outside is subjected to critical consideration. The individual makes a meaningful choice from several options.

3 Early socialization

represents a “rehearsal” for future social relations. For example, a young couple may live together before marriage in order to have an idea of ​​what family life will be like.

4. Resocialization

is re-socialization that occurs throughout an individual's life. Resocialization is carried out by changes in the individual’s attitudes, goals, norms and values ​​of life

5. Organizational socialization

is the process by which an individual acquires the values, abilities, norms of behavior and social outlook that are important for gaining weight in the organization and full participation in it as an employee

6. Group socialization

is socialization within a specific social group. Group socialization is the process of inculcating ideas and principles into an individual as he internalizes the basic values ​​and symbols of the group in which he is involved.

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Memory structure. Processes of storing and processing information

... memory is studied in cognitive psychology because the processes of storing and retrieving information form the basis of mental processes. There are several theories that claim to describe the work... the quality of an object (What?) and its localization (Where?). These two types of information enter the associative memory, where comparison with existing samples occurs. ...

7. Gender socialization

- this is the assimilation, internalization of social roles, differentiation of activities, statuses, rights and responsibilities of individuals depending on gender.

Agents of Socialization

- these are structural groups or environments in which the most important processes of socialization take place. In all cultures, the most important agent of primary socialization for a child is the family. However, in later stages of life, many other agents of socialization come into play. Agents of secondary socialization of an individual are school, university, army, church.

Peer groups, the media, mass printed publications, and electronic communications have a great socializing effect on a person.

Social deviation: concept, types.

Social deviation

- social behavior that deviates from accepted, socially acceptable behavior in a particular society.

There are many types of social deviation.

Cultural and psychological deviation

(By the nature of deviations)

Cultural deviance is behavior that deviates from cultural norms. Studied by sociologists. Psychological deviation is deviations in the personal organization: psychotics, neurotics, paranoids, etc. These deviations are studied by psychologists.

Individual and group deviation

(By subject type)

Thus, there are two pure types of deviants:

1) individual deviants

deny the norms that surround them. For example, a teenager who grew up in an intelligent family and becomes a drug addict, thereby demonstrating individual deviation.

2) group deviants

are conformists within deviant groups. For example, Children raised in alcoholic families who subsequently become part of a homeless group where substance abuse is commonplace exhibit group deviance.

Primary and secondary deviation

.(By degree of significance)

Primary deviation

- this is a type of behavior that generally corresponds to cultural norms; it is a minor, tolerant, acceptable deviation.

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1. Conflict in society is:

Test module No. 1 1. Conflict is: a) a struggle of opinions; b) dispute, discussion on an acute problem; *c) confrontation based on a clash of opposing motives or judgments; d) rivalry aimed at achieving victory in a dispute; e) a clash of opposing positions. 2. Stages of conflict development: * a) awareness of the situation as a conflict, *b) incident, c) collision, *d) ...

Secondary deviation

- a process during which, after the act

primary deviation, a person, under the influence of public reaction, accepts

deviant identity, that is, it is reconstructed as a person from the standpoint of that

group to which he was assigned.

Positive and negative deviation.(

By negativity)

Positive deviation

– deviations from the norms that are encouraged in a given society.
A genius, a hero, a spiritual leader are positive deviants. Although positive deviation occurs in any society, negative deviation attracts the greatest attention from sociologists .
Negative deviation

- behavior that is condemned by society and entails punishment. Criminals, drug addicts, alcoholics, prostitutes are negative deviants.

Successful socialization

In the process of socialization, a person goes through three main phases of development:

  1. Adaptation is the mastery of sign systems and social roles.
  2. Individualization is the isolation of an individual, the desire to stand out, to find “your own way.”
  3. Integration is integration into society, achieving a balance between the individual and society.

A person is considered socialized if he is taught to think and act in accordance with age, gender and social situation. However, this is not enough for successful socialization.

The secret of self-realization and success is a person’s active life position. It manifests itself in the courage of initiative, determination, conscious actions, and responsibility. A person’s real actions shape his active lifestyle and help him occupy a certain position in society. Such a person, on the one hand, obeys the norms of society, on the other, strives to lead. For successful socialization, to succeed in life, a person must have the following basic characteristics:

  • desire for self-development and self-actualization;
  • willingness to make independent decisions in situations of choice;
  • successful presentation of individual abilities;
  • communication culture;
  • maturity and moral stability.

A passive life position reflects a person’s tendency to submit to the world around him and follow circumstances. As a rule, he finds reasons not to make efforts, strives to avoid responsibility, and blames other people for his failures.

Despite the fact that the formation of a person’s life position is rooted in his childhood and depends on the environment in which he is located, it can be realized, comprehended and transformed. It's never too late to change yourself, especially for the better. People are born a person, but they become a person.

Diagnostics of socialization of older students

An objectively necessary and integral stage in the life of every person is social maturity. Social and technical requirements motivate increasing the level of education and professional training of the individual. In the learning process, not only intellectual knowledge is laid down, but also the norms, values ​​and traditions of the surrounding society. This is how the socialization of young members of society occurs.

In order to study the dynamics of the process, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor M.I. Rozhkov proposed a methodology for studying the social adaptation and activity of adolescents. During the testing process, students must familiarize themselves with 20 judgments and rate each of them according to the degree of their agreement. Analyzing the results, we can identify the following levels of socialization of students:

  • Social activity.
  • Social adaptability.
  • Social autonomy, that is, the willingness to make important decisions independently.

Due to the fact that education is the leading principle of socialization, to study the dynamics of the process it is also advisable to apply the “My Family” level of socialization methodology. Using this questionnaire, you can determine the degree of expression of social inclusion in the upbringing of the parental family. When assessing the level of relationships in the family circle (prosperous, satisfactory, dysfunctional), we can analyze eight determining factors:

  1. Strictness or loyalty of family upbringing.
  2. Formation of independence and initiative.
  3. Dominance of one of the parents or equal relationships.
  4. Attitude towards the school institution and teachers.
  5. Rigidity or loyalty of parenting methods.
  6. The nature of the relationship between family members.
  7. Mutual assistance and support in the family.
  8. Community of interests.

Features of socialization of children with disabilities

The socialization of children with disabilities - disabilities - provides for their right to diagnosis, special programs of psychocorrectional work, organizational and methodological assistance to families, differentiated and individual education. For children with special educational needs the following are created:

  • Specialized preschool educational institutions, schools or correctional classes in regular schools.
  • Health educational institutions of sanatorium type.
  • Special correctional educational institutions.
  • Educational institutions for children in need of psychological, pedagogical and medical and social assistance.
  • Educational institutions of primary vocational education.

Opportunities for obtaining secondary vocational and higher vocational education are being created for children with disabilities. For this purpose, special educational institutions are created, and various forms of integration are provided for in general institutions.

Despite this, the problem of socialization of children and adolescents with disabilities continues to remain relevant. The question of their integration into the society of “healthy” peers raises a lot of controversy and discussion.

Legal socialization

Legal socialization of an individual is the development in a person of certain ideas about his place in society, as well as about his social role and the culture of society as a whole.

The main feature of the legal socialization of an individual is the process of assigning to a person certain typical (predictable) reactions, ways of perceiving information and forms of activity accepted in this particular society.

Having perceived the norms and rules accepted in the society around a person as the basic and only true ones, the individual subsequently reacts negatively to any deviations from this norm, often evaluates them as an attempt to violate public order as a whole, and even actively opposes those who exhibit unusual behavior for the given person. reaction society.

Legal socialization of an individual is a necessary and important process, at the same time closely connected with society’s attempts to discard any progressive ideas unusual for it, which seem to successfully socialized members of society to be a violation of the very foundations of the existence of a social group or the nation as a whole.

Legal socialization of the individual makes it possible to build a clear hierarchical structure of the group, within which subjects who most clearly adhere to the standards of behavior approved by society easily increase their status and are fixed on the upper tiers of the pyramid, and individuals with non-standard views on life are rejected.

What does it contribute to?

Socialization and adaptation make it possible to form in a person’s brain the necessary set of values ​​and rules that he will subsequently apply to the world. These processes begin in childhood, when the parents of a young child begin to lay the foundation for the first mental and physical skills. After this, the person undergoes training in kindergarten, school and college. During this period, he gains more knowledge from other people, continuing to explore the world. Thanks to this, a person learns to communicate with the individuals around him and understands that the form of interaction with them can be different.

In addition, the socialization of the child is very important, as it teaches him self-control. Gradually, a person begins to learn how to react to certain events in his life. Thanks to this, he learns to distinguish between the internal and external worlds.

Gender socialization

The socialization of the individual cannot be fully accomplished without the individual mastering the cultural system of relationships between men and women characteristic of the society in which he lives, as well as awareness of gender roles and his place in this system.

Society begins to instill certain behavioral stereotypes in children literally from the cradle: in stores, for the most part, they offer a choice of only pink or blue baby care items, boys’ clothes are made mainly in blue, and girls’ in red, boys are given cars and pistols, and girls - dolls and decorations.

In the future, looking at the parents and guests of the family, the child absorbs those standards that pass before his eyes in the process of growing up: if the mother and her friends are mostly housewives and take care of cooking, cleaning and the house, and the father and his friends earn money and drive cars and play football, the individual will most likely internalize such a traditional value system, and in the future will begin to apply it to himself in accordance with his gender: a boy will strive to become a “breadwinner”, and a girl will be aimed at finding a husband who meets certain criteria, and dream of marriage and children.

If it is accepted in the family that mother works equally with father, and father cleans on weekends with mother, in the future the girl will not understand if her husband begins to demand that she sit at home and cook soups, and the boy does not appreciate his wife’s desire to become a housewife and study exclusively family matters.


The concept of desocialization of the individual is closely related to resocialization, and means the destruction of previously mastered and accepted norms and rules of behavior, the destruction of previous attitudes.
What is it and why is this process needed? This process is used by psychologists when a person’s learned norms of behavior prevent him from successfully fitting into society. In this case, a person must desocialize - abandon previous attitudes, and then resocialize - accept new rules of behavior adopted in the group.

Desocialization is necessary for victims of domestic violence, people who went through wars and lived in combat zones, as well as those who moved to other countries with a different cultural heritage or when re-educating individuals suffering from deviant behavior - alcoholics, drug addicts, criminals. “Reconfiguration” of the head in such cases is necessary, and the process plan usually begins with an assessment of the attitudes that the individual sees as unshakable, and proof that this unshakability is apparent.

The main institutions that determine the levels of socialization of a child

Important social groups that influence the entry of an individual into society are the family, preschool educational institutions, schools, universities, and work collectives. Also, in some cases, political parties, unions and religious organizations act as institutions of socialization.

Determining the level of socialization depends on the degree of influence of parents on the child. The primary group in a person’s life is the family or the group that replaces it. This is where the child acquires his first relationship skills. American sociologist Charles Cooley argued that primary groups are the foundation for the formation of social nature and human behavior. And the famous German psychoanalyst Erich Fromm considered the family to be a psychological mediator between a person and society.

The next step in the formation of levels of socialization is school, or more precisely, the educational process. Here the individual adapts to the relationships and order that exist in society. In modern society there are opposite trends in the socialization of young people. On the one hand, moral and ethical values ​​(work conscientiously, be honest and decent) still exist. But the market economy already dictates its own rules and foundations (for example, the desire for profit by any means). Thus, today's youth face a difficult choice. It is in such difficult conditions that the levels of socialization of adolescents are formed.

Subsequent institutions (labor and religious organizations, unions, circles, etc.), in which a person continues to acquire social norms, influence personal consciousness to a lesser extent than primary groups. However, they also play an important role in the formation of a socialized personality.

Stages and factors of personality socialization.

Socialization of personality

- this is the process of assimilating social norms, forming one’s own “I” to demonstrate the uniqueness of the individual as a person. That is, the process of socialization represents the establishment of identity. Society constantly dictates its rules and norms of behavior to us, so the duration of this process takes a lifetime, its main part being the period of childhood and adolescence.

The main goal of socialization is to prepare the individual to fulfill social roles for communication and the preservation of society. Instilling qualities and values ​​is the main factor in personality formation.


—The stage of human development from birth to the onset of puberty. Although the time frame for the latter is individual, not constant over time and depends on the adopted age periodization system, the upper limit of childhood is defined as approximately 11-13 years. During childhood, extremely intense physical and mental development occurs. A critical period of development is early childhood. Its violation, for example, isolation from human society, can lead to irreversible mental disorders.

Youth is the most difficult period of socialization. Social and psychological maturity very often does not keep up with physical maturity. The importance of the teenage stage lies in the fact that the formation of the foundation of the personality—the worldview—ends;

awareness of one’s “I” occurs as an understanding of one’s place in life; There is a constant search for moral guidelines.


is the flowering of the human personality. This is a long period, it consists of several cycles. The lower boundary is blurred, approximately 21-23 years. In an extreme situation, growing up occurs early; in calm times, it stretches out. The upper limit is indicated by retirement - 55 years for women, 60 years for men.

The main criterion of maturity: independence. “Criteria of independence”: Self-sufficiency of means of subsistence. The ability to manage money independently of others, Independence in choosing a lifestyle.

Living independently from parents. Adulthood is the most active period of socialization, since it is at this time that a large number of social roles in real life are mastered. Maturity is the most active creative age.

Old age

- this is the period of human life that begins after adulthood and is divided into several cycles: up to 71 years - old age; from 71 to 90 - senile; The age of a person over 90 years old is considered the age of longevity. Old age is a physical condition characterized by the gradual decline of all vital functions. Old age entails separation from certain social roles. First of all and most importantly, the elderly are waiting for retirement.


Awareness of impending death requires the individual to adapt to a new definition of his own essence. The concept of “dying” implies something more than just the occurrence of some biochemical processes. It entails the acceptance of a social status in which social structures not only accompany, but also shape the experience of contact with death.

Socialization factors

- these are circumstances that encourage a person to take active action. There are only three factors of socialization - these are macro factors (space, planet, country, society, state), meso factors (ethnicity, type of settlement, media) and micro factors (family, peer groups, organizations).

1. megafactors (mega - very large, universal) - space, planet, world, which to one degree or another through other groups of factors influence the socialization of all inhabitants of the Earth.

2. macro factors (macro - large) - country, ethnic group, society, state, which influence the socialization of everyone living in certain countries (this influence is mediated by two other groups of factors).

3. mesofactors (meso - average, intermediate), conditions for the socialization of large groups of people, distinguished: by the area and type of settlement in which they live (region, village, city, town); by belonging to the audience of certain mass communication networks (radio, television, etc.); according to belonging to certain subcultures.

4. Mesofactors influence socialization both directly and indirectly through the fourth group - microfactors. These include factors that directly influence specific people who interact with them - family and home, neighborhood, peer groups, educational organizations, various public, state, religious, private and counter-social organizations, microsociety.

Stages of socialization and their factors

If we consider socialization as a continuous process of adaptation of a person to society, then several stages can be distinguished depending on the uniqueness of social conditions. This classification of stages of socialization was born in Soviet social psychology, which put the socio-economic aspect in first place.

Depending on the social role of a person and his place in social relations, three stages are distinguished.

  1. The pre-labor stage covers the entire period of growing up before the start of work and is divided into the primary and educational stages. During the pre-labor stage, basic norms of behavior are learned, and the main socializing factor is educational influence.
  2. Labor stage. During this period, all the abilities of the individual are revealed, and its development occurs against the background of interaction with other elements of society. This is a period of active development of social roles and formation of social status. The main socializing factor is the desire for professional growth. And the main institution of socialization is the work collective, the system of social relations.
  3. The post-labor stage begins with a person’s retirement. It manifests itself in the restructuring of the system of social relations and the loss by the individual of a number of his social functions. The main factor of this stage is the change in a person’s social position and the restructuring of his activities. A person has to learn to exist in new conditions and look for new ways of self-expression and personal development. Not everyone succeeds in this, so the fact of losing their social significance is experienced quite hard.

This classification of stages of socialization is not supported by all psychologists; to many it seems artificial. The third stage is the most criticized, because in adulthood a person should not lose value for society, but rather the opposite. After all, he has something that younger representatives of society do not have - invaluable experience - both professional and social.

Types of socialization

Socialization is a difficult, even contradictory process. In the process of his development, an individual becomes acquainted with both humanity as a whole and individual groups of people who have their own rules, goals and guidelines.

Therefore, experts distinguish several types of this phenomenon:

Primary socialization begins at the birth of a child and ends with the formation of a mature personality. It lays the foundations for all subsequent development of a person, and to some extent determines the scenario of his future life. The family is of greatest importance, because it is the first thing a child sees in his life. It is necessary to keep in mind that children perceive what they see around them uncritically, therefore they regard the behavior of adults in the family as basic, standard. Alcoholism and sloppiness, unsanitary conditions in the house - all this is “imprinted” in the child’s mind and can remain with him for life if he does not go through the subsequent stages of socialization. And vice versa - intelligence and cleanliness learned in the family will also accompany him in the future. In the future, kindergarten, school, a group of friends and peers become new social environments, where the child has to get accustomed to a new environment and act in accordance with new rules.

Secondary socialization, or resocialization, is the process of eliminating previous patterns of behavior and learning new ones. This process continues throughout the individual's life. During resocialization, a person experiences a complete break with his past and feels the need to assimilate new values ​​that are strikingly different from those that he previously adhered to. Typically, the changes that occur during secondary socialization are less than during primary socialization.

Group socialization is a process that takes place within a social group. So, if a child spends more time with his peers than in the family, then he more actively adopts the norms and rules inherent in the peer group.

Gender socialization is a process that involves learning the role of a man or woman in society. At the same time, boys learn to be men, and girls learn to be women.

In the past, gender socialization was an important and necessary part of a person's entry into society, but nowadays gender has largely ceased to have any meaning. Equality of rights and opportunities eliminates the need to “command” and “obey”, and representatives of both sexes have the opportunity to master the same professions, occupy the same positions and take on the same social roles (for example, in a family, both parents can take turns working and raising children, either the wife works, and the husband looks after the household and raises the children, or “the old fashioned way” - the husband works, and the wife takes care of the household and children)

The principles of gender socialization are still strong in traditional, backward societies (in the countries of Asia and Africa), but even there they are gradually losing their position.

Organizational socialization is a process in which an individual who is part of an organization learns its norms and rules and masters the skills of his work within its framework.

Early socialization is the process of mastering norms, rules and skills that do not correspond to the current level of physical, psychological and social development. First of all, this type of socialization is understood as a game - a kind of “rehearsal” for future social activity.

Stages of socialization

The process of socialization has its own patterns and characteristics. Its course is subject to strict socio-psychological laws, which are the same for primary, secondary, and permanent socialization. For this process to be considered fully completed, it must go through three stages.

Adaptation stage

This period is characterized by the active assimilation of norms, rules, and mastery of forms of sociotypical behavior. In children's socialization, it takes place under the guidance of adults; in re-socialization, a person, as a rule, is active himself. After all, it is very important to become a full member of a new team, so the individual tries to quickly find out what is accepted here, what is not, with whom and how to communicate, and what traditions should be remembered.

Young children follow group norms under the influence of adults. Initially, these norms are external for children, and only then do they undergo a process of internalization. The same is typical for an adult who behaves in a certain way in a new team, just so as not to stand out, not to seem like a stranger.

The internalization of social norms—their transition from the external level to the internal—is the main psychological mechanism of this stage. Becoming like everyone else is the main goal of an individual at the adaptation stage.

The gradual nature of the socialization process is clearly visible in young children, who, as they learn social norms, begin to notice their violations. But, first of all, not for yourself, but for other children. And when they notice, they snitch, that is, they report the violation to an adult - the main guarantor of correct social behavior. Although it is believed that lying is bad, it is a natural and, from the point of view of social psychology, a normal phenomenon. In children, of course. For them, it indicates that the adaptation stage is in the active phase.

Individualization stage

This is the most difficult and problematic stage, as it is often associated with the demonstration of antisocial behavior in adolescents. Having mastered the basic norms of society or a social group, a person no longer wants to be “like everyone else.” He feels the need for individualization, for self-expression, for the manifestation of his own “I”.

The child reaches this stage of primary socialization just in time for adolescence, and the crisis characteristic of it is superimposed on the teenager’s desire to prove his uniqueness, demonstrate his abilities and talents. This manifests itself in changing different hobbies and interests, because you can only understand what you are capable of through activity. Those children who were able to quickly find a sphere of self-expression (sports, fine arts, design, collecting, etc.) endure the crisis of adolescence much easier.

A child who has found his way is calmer, because he is confident in himself and feels respect from society. Accordingly, the adults around him also experience fewer problems. Therefore, an important task of parents and teachers is to help the teenager in search of self-realization, otherwise he will express himself in his own way, for example, in shocking behavior, violation of discipline, antisocial behavior, and aggressiveness.

This stage is also observed when an adult moves to another group, although it is usually less noticeable than in adolescents.

Integration stage

So, if a person has overcome the most difficult stage of socialization and has determined how he can earn the respect of society, then he begins to look for an area to apply his abilities and like-minded people for joint activities. This stage is clearly visible in adolescence, when young people are faced with choosing a professional activity or are just starting one. They strive to be active and demonstrate their talents, but, unfortunately, they still lack experience and public trust. Therefore, it is easiest for them to be in a circle of like-minded peers. This is the most “party” period, young people create their own fan clubs, informal groups, communities where they can discuss common interests and engage in a common cause, where they all have equal rights.

This is the final stage of socialization. On it, a person can demonstrate his importance to society and begin his path to success. If, of course, he successfully completed the first two stages. Unfortunately, often a person fails to find his calling at the stage of individualization, then he begins to feel like a failure and can still look for his path for a long time, changing different occupations and professions, or simply go with the flow.

This person is also a full-fledged member of society, but he is not able to realize himself fully. However, one should not be disappointed and give up; many have found their calling and way of self-realization even in adulthood. And from this they not only felt satisfaction, but even became younger.

Thus, socialization is one of those global processes that underlie the existence of society. Therefore, not only each individual, but also society as a whole is interested in its organization. We can say that all the forces of society are devoted to this and all its main institutions are engaged in socialization: the state, family, school, religious and public organizations, the media, literature and all types of performing arts.

Types of personality socialization

There are several types of socialization, which depend on different factors. Mechanisms of personality socialization can be divided into two groups:

  1. Primary
    – implying the perception of society in childhood. The child is socialized, focusing on the cultural position of the family in which he is raised, and on the perception of the world by the adults around him. From this we can conclude that parents shape the first social experience of their child.
  2. Secondary
    - have no duration and last until a person enters a certain social group. With age, the child begins to get into different formations, for example, into a kindergarten or sports sections, where he learns new roles and, on the basis of this, learns to perceive himself from a different perspective. It is worth noting that socialization and personality often encounter certain inconsistencies, for example, family values ​​do not correspond to the interests of the selected group, and then a person goes through self-identification and makes a choice based on experience and feelings.

Gender-role socialization of personality

This type is also called gender socialization, and it involves a person’s assimilation of the peculiar differences between men and women. There is an acceptance of existing behavior patterns, norms and values ​​of both sexes, as well as the influence of the public and the social environment in order to instill a number of rules and standards. This continues throughout life. The concept of personality socialization in gender terms highlights the following mechanisms for its implementation:

  1. Socially acceptable behavior will be rewarded, and deviations from the norm will be punished.
  2. A person chooses suitable gender role models in close groups, that is, in the family, among peers, and so on.

Family socialization of personality

A child learns to perceive the world not only through the direct influence of adults, that is, upbringing, but also by observing the behavior of people around him.

It is important to note that often the development and socialization of the individual in the family comes across a discrepancy between the behavior patterns of parents and the requirements that they put forward for the child. An example is a smoking ban, but one of the parents or other family members has such a bad habit

The main factors of personality socialization are:

  1. Family composition and structure, that is, how relatives interact with each other.
  2. The child’s position in the family, for example, he may be a grandson to his grandmother, a brother to his sister, a son to his father, and a stepson to his stepmother. It has been proven that the socialization of a child raised in a two-parent family and a single mother is different.
  3. The chosen parenting style, so parents and grandparents can instill different values ​​in the child.
  4. The moral and creative potential of the family is no less important for the socialization of the individual.

Professional and labor socialization

When a person gets to work, there is a change or adjustment in his character and behavior during activities. Features of the socialization of the individual in the labor sphere are expressed in the fact that adaptation is carried out both within the team and in professional stratification. To improve one’s own status, the availability and development of labor skills is of great importance.

Subcultural-group socialization

Each person must master social roles that are related to the culture of the environment where he lived, studied, worked, communicated, and so on. The essence of personal socialization is based on the fact that each region has its own distinctive features, due to which society is formed. If we focus on subcultural-group socialization, then nationality, religious affiliation, age, field of activity and other factors will be taken into account.

The causes of deviation in the concepts of Ch. Lombroso, H. Sheldon, Z. Freud.

The reason for deviant behavior may lie in the structural features of the human body. The most famous supporters of these ideas are C. Lombroso and W. Sheldon. The Italian doctor C. Lombroso believed that a tendency to criminal behavior can be determined by such characteristic features as a protruding lower jaw, a sparse beard and reduced sensitivity to pain.U. Sheldon believed that a certain body structure meant the presence of characteristic personality traits. An endomorph (a person of moderate obesity with a soft and somewhat rounded body) is characterized by sociability, the ability to get along with people and self-indulgence. The mesomorph (whose body is strong and slender) tends to be restless, active and not overly sensitive. An ectomorph (distinguished by the thinness and fragility of the body) is prone to introspection, endowed with increased sensitivity and nervousness. Based on studies of the behavior of two hundred young men, Sheldon concluded that mesomorphs are most prone to deviation, although they do not always become criminals. In accordance with another biological concept, men who have an additional Y chromosome are more prone to display deviation than others, but a clear cause-and-effect relationship between the presence of aberrant chromosomes and deviation has not been identified.

The psychological approach sees the cause of deviation in psychological conflicts, problems and traumas, especially those experienced by the individual in childhood. The most famous is the psychoanalytic theory of S. Freud. Deviant behavior, according to Z. Freud, arises as a result of a conflict between Ego and Id or Superego and Id. For example, crimes arise when the Superego - the individual's civilized self-control - cannot cope with the primitive, destructive, cruel impulses of the Id. Various impulses can be suppressed, thereby moving into the unconscious layers of the psyche.

9 pages, 4337 words

Moral standards and moral behavior in the relationship “man – society – nature”

FEDERAL EDUCATION AGENCY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ST. PETERSBURG STATE UNIVERSITY OF SERVICE AND ECONOMICS SYKTYVKAR BRANCH Examination in the discipline: Ecology On the topic: Moral standards and moral behavior in the relationship “man - society - nature”. Completed by: 1st year student Anisimova Olga Grigorievna Syktyvkar 2008 Introduction Man is a part of nature, the highest ...

The essence of socialization

The need for socialization is determined by human nature itself. He is a unique phenomenon, because he is the only living creature that has virtually no innate forms of behavior. A child who has not undergone socialization is unable to communicate as a person, establish relationships with relatives, or behave as is customary in society. It is a cat or a dog that has innate programs of species behavior, but a person needs to learn everything.

Socialization, in essence, is the process of human adaptation in society. But this is not just knowledge of how to behave in a given situation. Knowledge of social norms does not guarantee compliance with them. For example, a criminal does not steal because he does not know that it is illegal. He knows this very well. But the norm “don’t steal” did not go through the process of socialization, was not appropriated by him, and did not become his intrapersonal norm of behavior. The phenomenon of transition of a social norm or meaning from the external to the internal level is called internalization.

This is the basis of socialization, its basic process. Initially, all norms of behavior and methods of social activity are external for the child. Parents, sometimes through persuasion and sometimes through coercion, instill in their child the habit of performing certain actions, making assessments of their own actions and the actions of others. For example, a small child does not feel any need to eat with a spoon, fasten buttons on his blouse, brush his teeth, say hello, much less put away his toys. But if the parents are persistent and patient enough, then these actions become habitual, and in a similar situation the child himself will feel the need for them. So, we, adults, will experience obvious discomfort if we have to eat salad with our hands or go out to strangers casually dressed.

The complexity of socialization also lies in the fact that a person is a member of different social groups with different norms and rules. We have to undergo additional socialization in every society we happen to find ourselves in.

Social anomie: Concepts and causes.


- a state of society in which a significant part of its members, knowing about the existence of binding norms, treats them negatively or indifferently, a state of lawlessness.
The phenomenon of social anomie was first described by the French sociologist Emile Durkheim. Anomie
is the absence of law, organization, norms of behavior, their insufficiency. The concept of anomie characterizes a state of society in which disintegration and collapse of the system of norms that guarantee social order occur (E. Durkheim).

Social anomie indicates that norms of behavior are seriously violated and weakened. Anomie causes a psychological state of the individual that is characterized by a feeling of loss of orientation in life. The reason for anomie is the insufficient development of rules governing the relations between various social functions that are not coordinated with each other. Durkheim believed that socially deviant behavior and crime are completely normal phenomena. If there is no such behavior in society, then it is painfully controlled. When crime is eliminated, progress stops. Crime is the price to pay for social change. A society without crime is unthinkable. For crime is inevitable, ineradicable. And the reason for this is not that people are weak and evil, but that there is an infinite variety of different types of behavior in society.

67. Social conflict: concept and types.

Social conflict

- conflict, the cause of which is disagreement between social groups or individuals with differences in opinions and views, the desire to take a leading position; manifestation of people's social connections.

In the field of scientific knowledge, there is a separate science dedicated to conflicts - conflictology. A conflict is a collision of opposing goals, positions, and views of the subjects of interaction. At the same time, conflict is the most important aspect of interaction between people in society

3 pages, 1083 words

Organizational socialization

Organizational or professional socialization is the process of an individual mastering the skills and attitudes adopted in an organization for the successful performance of basic functions, as well as for establishing relationships with colleagues.
At first, upon entering the workforce, newcomers become familiar with generally accepted standards of behavior in the organization, master the jargon, communication style, learn to comply with the dress code, and perceive the balance of power between people. This is also the socialization of the individual, and very important - often we have problems with work not because we are bad professionals, but only because even an excellent professional who is unable to establish relationships with people will bring nothing but harm to the organization.

To improve organizational socialization, it is customary for companies to organize various joint holidays, field trips, and conduct games and activities to improve communication between colleagues.

The ability to successfully fit into any system is useful to everyone, and one cannot think that socialization is important only for those who are not successful and do not fit into the framework. Since any framework has its values ​​exclusively in a given period of time, and there is no guarantee that tomorrow the concept of the norm will not change, and that yesterday’s successful person will not find himself on the sidelines of life with his mossy concepts of the norm.

Group socialization

The assimilation of norms accepted as fundamental in society, rules of behavior, restrictions and unacceptable actions is the process of education and instilling in a child a clear understanding of the boundaries within which he must move in order not to be rejected by others.

Our society is structured in such a way that an individual needs to receive social approval, belong to a group, and feel the support of members of this group. And for this we are forced to behave in a certain way, follow certain rules of behavior and fall into the pattern set by the group we want to join.

Patterns of behavior among groups can be different and even diametrically opposed: for some groups, community based on financial solvency is important, others, on the contrary, are formed by uniting poor members of society and declare themselves to be opposed to wealthy circles.

It is important to understand that it is impossible to socialize universally one hundred percent in such a way as to ideally fit into absolutely all segments of the population and groups, precisely because they value different qualities and opposing values. It’s not for nothing that people say: “You’re not a piece of gold to please everyone!” - you cannot please everyone, and in the process of socialization a person has to choose which group to join, and also oppose himself to some other group of people.

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