Formation and development of personality in the modern world from the point of view of psychology

Age stages of personality formation

Phases of personality development, based on age periodization, affect several aspects of development at once: biological, psychological and social. This fully reflects the perception of man as a biosocial being, capable of actively changing the course of history and his own life.

The formation and development of personality goes through the following stages:

  • desire to communicate or withdraw from people (forms in the first year of life). The main thing is direct, emotion-based communication with adults;
  • acquisition of independence and confidence (formed by 3 years). This provides objective activity that provides understanding of surrounding objects;
  • active study of the surrounding world, which is facilitated by a high level of curiosity, development of communication and work abilities (fully formed by the age of 13). These skills are trained through role-playing and learning activities;
  • puberty and life determination, both in the sphere of values ​​and in profession (up to 20 years). The main points are intimate communication and educational and professional activities;
  • realizing your own capabilities and plans, enjoying the results achieved, actively raising children if you have them (up to 60 years old);
  • active creative activity, analysis of one’s own life, actions, rethinking of one’s whole life.

Based on this periodization, please note that personality in psychology is not considered as a static structure, but can only go through various stages of its formation.

Classification of human nature in psychology:

  • Definitely positive;
  • Conditionally positive;
  • Neutral;
  • Damaged.

Based on human nature, it is possible to build a path to personal growth. For example, in “ unconditionally positive”

“human nature, the meaning of education will be the help of a psychologist in actualization. With a “conditionally positive” human nature, the meaning of education will change to the existential approach of a psychologist in helping with choice.

If we take neutral human nature

, then the meaning of education here will be the formation and correction of personality by a psychologist. As for the last variation of human nature - damaged, here a more difficult task will fall on the shoulders of the psychologist - correction and compensation.

Factors and directions of personality development

Psychology studies what factors and how they influence the processes of development and formation of personality. Three main parameters have been identified that have a direct impact on the formation of personality:

  • Genetics – determines the innate presence of abilities or inclinations, as well as some limitations caused by biological factors;
  • Society has an indirect, but quite strong influence, both on the development of the individual and the paths of his further development. The closest social group can be considered as tools through which the development of necessary skills is carried out, and the rest of society represents rather a potential opportunity for the development of certain personality traits;
  • Training and education organized by state and family systems, as opposed to the spontaneous influence of the environment. This factor is the most significant in the implementation of the social orientation of human activity, which is inextricably included in the concept of personality along with the mental and biological.

Of the factors presented, education plays the most important role. It is an active guiding vector, and not an exclusively existing and pre-established prerequisite.

Directions of development:

  • physical – implies a complex of many indicators. Such as morphology (weight, height, volumes), physiology (blood circulation, metabolic processes, puberty, etc.), biochemistry (composition of body tissues), as well as their changes;
  • mental – mastery of higher mental functions (various types of thinking, directed memory, volitional skills). The ability to recognize and broadcast emotions, express needs and character traits;
  • social – directly related to the mental. But the concept of spirituality, morality (morality) and intelligence (the ability to expand and deepen knowledge) is also added here.

What pushes a person to transformation is the constantly emerging contradiction between what is currently available and what is necessary or desirable to do and have. This can also apply to the physical domain, where the need to learn to get food independently motivates the development of walking skills. Socially, the contradiction between the desire to be accepted by society and to express one’s own thoughts can give rise to creative ideas for adaptation, the study of the psychological characteristics of people, as well as one’s own psychological traumas.

Daily Sprint

Psychologists and psychiatrists of all stripes have noted a sharp surge in anxiety, self-doubt and a huge number of different phobias among the average representative of our society.

The life of a modern person passes at a frantic pace, so there is simply no time to relax and escape from numerous everyday problems. The vicious circle of running a marathon at sprint speed forces people to race against themselves. Intensification leads to insomnia, stress, nervous breakdowns and illnesses, which has become a fundamental trend in the post-information age.

Personal maturity

Features of human development imply the presence of factors that determine maturity, both the holistic concept of personality and its individual components. Many authors correlate the criteria of maturity, and accordingly a certain final stage of development of certain functions, with age and mental maturity.

Despite the fact that personal development is a continuous and lengthy process throughout life, there are a number of factors that determine a kind of maturity plateau, after which the individual path of development begins.

The basics of personal maturity include:

  • Responsibility for one’s own behavior, decisions made, as well as the immediate environment with which the maximum number of contacts occurs. Responsibility is formed only when infantility goes away, as a sign of not yet formed maturity. This concept implies not only the burden for one’s behavior, but also the freedom to choose the necessary paths or desired options for the course of events;
  • Tolerance, as the most pronounced social quality, helps to establish harmonious relationships. In addition, patience is seen as a personal manifestation, thanks to which results that require long work are possible;
  • Self-development and self-actualization, which are the main driving factors for continuous development and further deepening and expansion of knowledge. This is rather an internal need, rather than a duty determined by external requirements, as is expressed with an undeveloped internal structure;
  • Positive attitude towards the external and internal world, as well as towards current events.

Personal development of a child in the modern world

Today, in modern society, there is increasingly a trend in which people’s attitudes towards many things that are only part of the whole, which until recently were considered the achievements of mankind in the field of art and literature, unfortunately, at this stage, have lost their relevance. And, if you try to analyze the reasons for this situation, it immediately becomes clear that many young people do not even have an awareness of the very concept of the criterion of values ​​related to achievements in the field of world culture and history. In connection with the identified problem, the question of its immediate solution involuntarily arises. Only in this case, our society will be able to raise a child to be a worthy person and citizen.

The process of developing positive personal qualities in a child involves a whole range of obligations in his upbringing. But, of course, we must not forget that a person, at a certain age, is greatly influenced by his own opinion... So the task of society is to give the child the right ideals.

There is an opinion in science that one is born as an individual, becomes an individual, and individuality is defended. At birth, a person’s individuality is limited only by the properties of his body, but as he develops temperamental characteristics, personality traits are formed, his individuality expands and spreads to an increasingly higher level.

For a long period, starting from the 90s, our society, within the framework of an unstable political system, was deprived of any ideals that are the connecting link not only for the younger generation, but also for the population of the entire country.

Therefore, in these conditions, the process of personal development took place practically without the participation of public organizations and, of course, what kind of person the child would become depended mainly on the parents, but even here there are still controversial issues.. As a rule, specialists practicing in the field of children psychology, very often argue that parents can also have an active negative influence on a child’s psyche. The reasons that leave a negative imprint on a child’s personality can be different and their manifestation is possible in the following forms: the manner of communication of parents using rude words or the desire of some mothers and fathers to impose their will on the child, some ideals, views, believing that this is the only way , she or he will be able to provide a decent education, without forgetting about the moral attitude.

So, in these circumstances, this situation can become the starting point for the development of relations between the child and parents. Of course, you and I all know that a child’s adolescence is a rather difficult period for the formation of relationships of the whole family, a time when the child stops looking at the world, as rules, through the prism of ideals proposed by his parents, he begins to have his own view of things , which, most often, does not suit parents who do not accept the situation when the child declares his position. Today, in the conditions of modern development of society, a lot is said about new forms and methods of raising children, but, as a rule, their implementation is only within the framework of certain educational institutions. And here, it would probably be appropriate to appeal to parents with an appeal to the fact that it is time to begin reforming the education system within each family. Our society, at this stage of development, has made us hostage to circumstances when money began to be the highest value. And, as a rule, in all this fuss, children remain deprived of attention, care, those tender moments that at a certain age only parents can give their child. Therefore, having once assumed this responsibility, an often difficult mission, we must carry it out with pride and, as a result, obtain a highly educated person who has a set of moral qualities that make him a worthy member of society.

Of course, this appeal does not apply to families that have fairly strong deviations from the generally accepted norms of development of modern society. Work with such parents is carried out at the level of specialized government bodies.

Many moments in life, which at first glance, for us parents, may seem insignificant, have a strong influence on the child, giving rise to specific sensations and concepts in him (fears, complexes, incorrect assessment of values ​​in society that children face), which at a certain moment will make themselves known, leaving a negative impact on the child’s personality.

As a rule, a person who has reached the age of 18 is considered to be a formed personality, when his positions and views on life largely depend on his personal point of view. However, even at this stage, very often, childhood grievances received from parents surface, which can become a serious obstacle to his family well-being. And, in this case, relatives or an experienced psychologist can help in overcoming this problem.

However, when analyzing the above points, we should under no circumstances neglect the role of society in the process of developing a child’s personality, since only in society does a child go through all the necessary stages of socialization corresponding to certain age periods of life, which will make him a person ready for adulthood. life. And immediately, life examples arise in my memory when a man or woman, being at a fairly mature age, continues to live with their elderly parents and not because they need help, but because at some stage they personal development, a mistake occurred, most likely through the vein of his parents, which ultimately led him to this way of life. Of course, such a person, according to social indicators, will not be any antisocial element of society, but I think that many will agree with me that it is unlikely that anyone would want to consider him an exemplary model for personal development, from the very first moments of human development the individual until the final formation of his personality in the life of society.

Having an active influence on the child’s involvement in the process of socialization, thereby striving to provide more independence, we must not forget that in any matter it is important to know a sense of proportion, in other words, on the one hand, giving the child the opportunity to learn a new, previously little-studied world, which and the company of people will become for him, we must observe his steps with particular accuracy, as if from the outside, but at that moment when the child suddenly chooses neither path, due to certain circumstances, our task is to be next to him as quickly as possible, lead you off the wrong path, protecting you from mistakes..

Returning to the topic of the subjective values ​​of modern society, which certainly influence our positions in life, as a rule, we ourselves, very often, perhaps even without realizing it, through our actions and deeds, instill in the child a false system of values. As a rule, in families with great material wealth, where the whole life is subordinated to one idea: increasing material well-being, it would probably be foolish to think that for a person who grew up in such a family, the main personal characteristics would be the concepts of morality, morality, kindness, love, loyalty, tolerance, the ability to sacrifice oneself for others, etc. Motivation, which is the main driver of human activity, as a rule, very often, is laid down in childhood, being realized in practice already in adulthood and, of course, parents, especially parents, must explain and show the child by their own example the true values ​​and ideals . And not to provoke a situation where words and demands regarding a child contradict one’s own actions.

And, of course, it is never necessary to forget that a child is the same person, only small, and therefore, when you once again decide to show some kind of negative reaction towards the child, even if it seems to you that he, at that time deserved it, put yourself in his place and think, would you be satisfied with such an attitude towards yourself...

In conclusion, I would like to recall the words of the famous Russian critic and publicist Dmitry Ivanovich Pisarev: “A person who truly respects the human personality must respect it in his child, starting from the moment when the child felt his “I” and separated himself from the world around him.” .

Where and from where is the world heading?

The development of modern man and his main paths were predetermined long before our time. Culturologists name several turning points, the result of which was modern society and people in the modern world.

Creationism, which fell in an unequal battle under the pressure of adherents of atheology, brought very unexpected results - a widespread decline in morals. Cynicism and criticism, which have become the norm of behavior and thinking since the Renaissance, are considered a kind of “rules of good manners” for moderns and elders.

Science in itself is not the raison d'être of society and is unable to answer some questions. To achieve harmony and balance, adherents of the scientific approach should be more humane, since the unresolved problems of our time cannot be described and solved like an equation with several unknowns.

Rationalization of reality sometimes does not allow us to see anything more than numbers, concepts and facts, which do not leave room for many important things.

Problems of social culture

The problems of modern man are inseparable from the deformations in society itself and create a closed spiral.

Cultural ouroboros causes people to withdraw even more into themselves and move away from other individuals. Contemporary art - literature, painting, music and cinema - can be considered a typical expression of the processes of degradation of public self-awareness.

Films and books about nothing, musical works without harmony and rhythm are presented as the greatest achievements of civilization, full of sacred knowledge and deep meaning, incomprehensible to the majority.

The internal experiences of each individual person remain unresolved, and negative emotions are simply not taken into account. A strict focus on abstract “positivity” and sometimes inappropriate “creative approach” turn people with their inherent feelings and emotions into cyborgs for the implementation of certain tasks without the opportunity to share personal experiences. Human problems consist in the denial of personal qualities and the original differences between people.

Who is to blame and what to do?

No one in particular is to blame for the substitution of values ​​and everyone is guilty. Modern human rights are both respected and not respected precisely because of this distortion - you can have an opinion, but you cannot express it, you can love something, but you cannot mention it.

Stupid Ouroboros, constantly chewing his own tail, will one day choke, and then there will be complete harmony and world peace in the Universe. However, if this does not happen in the foreseeable future, future generations will at least have hope for the best.

What is a strong personality

What qualities must a person have to be called that? Based on the personality structure described below (be sure to read it - it’s very useful), we can say that a strong personality is:

  1. self-confident person;
  2. having a strong character;
  3. able to manage one's actions and emotional intelligence;
  4. easily adaptable to any environmental changes, especially negative ones;
  5. having goals and being able to achieve them;
  6. interacts effectively with the world and is a rational thinker.

This list of qualities can be continued endlessly.

The person described above is rather a collective image, since each individual has his own portrait of a strong personality. You can compose it yourself and develop the necessary characteristics in order to become strong.

For example, in this video we are asked to pay attention to the signs of a strong-willed person:

Do you consider yourself one of those? Well, okay. Being strong is not synonymous with being happy. For the most part, such people simply cannot act differently - that’s how they are. Did they want this? We need to ask them.

Personally, I don’t want to be like that, because due to the characteristics described below (temperament, abilities, strong-willed qualities) this is not my path. And following someone else's path is the worst thing that can happen to a person.

Don’t be fooled by the calls of “woe teachers” for personal growth - they won’t help you. Everything is decided by genetics and your own desire. It is not worth breaking the behavior program laid down by nature, because it is unnatural.

Instincts versus reason

The main motives for the activities of society are considered to be the inheritance from distant and wild ancestors who once lived in caves. Modern man is just as tied to biological rhythms and solar cycles as he was a million years ago. An anthropocentric civilization only creates the illusion of control over the elements and one’s own nature.

The payback for such deception comes in the form of personal dysfunction. It is impossible to control every element of the system always and everywhere, because even your own body cannot be ordered to stop aging or change its proportions.

Scientific, political and social institutions are vying with each other about new victories that will certainly help humanity grow blooming gardens on distant planets. However, modern man, armed with all the achievements of the last millennium, is not able to cope with a common runny nose, like 100, 500 and 2000 years ago.

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