What are emotions - their types and meaning in human life

A lot depends on your emotional state: decision-making, responding to the actions and behavior of other people, productivity and even well-being. If we stop controlling our experiences, they begin to control us, which often leads to not the most pleasant consequences. In this article, I will classify and describe the types of emotions and human feelings in psychology, and explain their main features in diagrams and tables.

What are emotions - definition and meaning

Human emotions are a mental process that arises in accordance with current situations.
The manifestation of emotions can be of different directions, and have both negative and positive connotations. This depends on the subjective evaluative opinion of each person. In simple language, emotions can be called the possibility of manifestation of experiences in the soul due to any situation. Translated from Latin, this word means “wave” or “shock.”

Thus, this is a certain process in which a person is not in a neutral state: he evaluates the situation with a certain sense of experience.

This condition overtakes a person from the inside. Externally the following signs appear:

  • facial expressions;
  • gestures and body position;
  • voice;
  • general behavior.

For example, you slipped on the street. In such a situation, many thoughts instantly arise in a person’s head: “How slippery! Now my leg hurts! You'll have to go to the emergency room.

Why do I even live in a country where there is winter?!” After assessing what happened, you will have a choice: silently keep your resentment and irritation to yourself, or lash out at some person, and it doesn’t matter whether you know him or not. Thanks to emotions, something special appears in our lives, motivating us to live.

Gray everyday life is brightened up with various feelings. Emotions help us live. Without them, human life would be like a robot's existence. Feelings are what distinguishes us from other creatures and objects.

Izard's Differential Emotions

The scientist identified the following fundamental experiences:

  • Interest. This feeling is directly related to a person’s sociality. Only with him is it possible to acquire new skills, knowledge, skills, and develop physically and mentally.
  • Pleasure. It is a kind of synonym for joy. Creates a positive background, a good, cheerful mood. Appears when there is an opportunity to satisfy an important need for an individual. It can increase self-confidence, facilitate the process of establishing communication, and get rid of anxiety and stress.
  • Astonishment. A short-term reaction to a collision of the psyche that has just occurred with a certain unexpected event, phenomenon or action.
  • Anger. A negative state characterized by the impossibility of getting what you want, failure, or dissatisfaction with someone's behavior. The uncontrollable form is rage.
  • Disgust. It arises due to interaction with an object that is unpleasant for the individual. Accompanied by a thirst to get rid of the provoking factor.
  • Contempt. It manifests itself in the process of disagreement between people’s beliefs and actions.
  • Shame. It is formed due to the inconsistency of certain aspects of the personality with one’s own requirements or public opinion. It is often accompanied by an unpleasant feeling of helplessness.
  • Guilt. It arises as a result of condemnation of one’s own behavior. Brings with it repentance.
  • Fear. Associated with the awareness of an emerging or imaginary threat to life.
  • Grief. Reaction to negative events.

There is also a scale that allows you to determine the prevailing emotional state of an individual.

ManifestationsSum of pointsCategory
AttentiveConcentratedAssembledC1 Interest
EnjoyingHappyGladC2 Pleasure
SurprisedAmazedStrickenC3 Surprise
SadSadBrokenS4 Grief
ExcitedAngryInsaneC5 Anger
DislikeDisgustDisgustC6 Disgust
ContemptuousNeglectingHaughtyS7 Contempt
FrightenedHorrifiedIn panicC8 Fear
ShyTimidShyC9 Shame
SorryGuiltyRepentantC10 Wines

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To determine your emotional state, you need to evaluate your current state of health in each column:

1 – absolutely not suitable;

2 – more likely yes than no;

3 – consent;

4 – completely true.

Next, count the sum of points in the lines of the list and calculate the coefficient using the formula:

KS = (C1 + C2 + C3 + C9 + C10) / (C4 + C5 + C6 + C7 + C8)

If the obtained value is >1, then the result is assessed as positive; if <1, there is a negative mood, close to depression.

Emotions and feelings are different from each other

Emotions and feelings are an integral part of personality.
Thanks to emotions, people can distinguish good from bad and create amazing pictures, songs, or stories. Emotional richness makes our lives varied and interesting. Without emotions and feelings, a person will not be able to love and regret. All our feelings and emotions can sometimes cause the desire to act irrationally. Very often, feelings and emotions are used interchangeably. This is partly true, but there are some differences between these definitions:

  1. Emotions tend to last a short amount of time. For example, you bought a car that you have been wanting to buy for a long time. You will be happy for a while. Perhaps even the whole day. But gradually the emotion will subside, and you will begin to use your imagination and dream about something else. If it concerns a negative key, for example, if someone steps on your foot, you will become angry, but you will soon be able to forget about this incident, since there is no serious threat to your health;
  2. Feelings are long-term. They are also called emotions that arise in a person over a long period of time. For example, you can show the emotion of love for your child from the moment he is born. Or spend your entire life being angry at the person who broke your heart. In these cases, love and anger have been present in a person’s life for a very long time, this fact makes them feelings.

Emotions can become feelings. If we talk about the spectrum of positive emotions, then there is nothing bad. Chronic joy is not a disease. However, when people keep negative images within themselves for a long time, they begin to destroy themselves from the inside, which is very harmful to the spiritual and physical state of a person.

This can lead to apathy and depression. This happens due to the fact that at some point in time we did not allow the emotion to come out. For example, if a person at school age was offended by a classmate and he could not do anything to him, in the depths of his soul, unexpressed emotions will be deposited. They will make him remember this situation again and again in his thoughts, and he will become more irritated.

Don't keep all your emotions inside. Everything you feel has strong energy that can harm your health. To prevent this from happening, you need to show your emotions. When expressing your feelings, remember that your actions may harm your loved ones or people around you, so try to respond to situations within the bounds of accepted decency

Emotions must be brought out and not kept inside, because negative emotions can significantly ruin a person’s life. Negative emotions that a person experiences for a long time can provoke a depressive state. A strong blow to the nervous system will cause great damage to health and cause emotional instability.

Do we need negative emotions as well as positive ones?

Look at the list of negative emotions. Would you be willing to volunteer to try any of them? Probably not, and this is not surprising! We have already talked about the harm of negative emotions on physical health in an article about psychosomatics .

Here are some examples of identified patterns between negative emotions and human diseases.

Now refer to the list of examples of positive emotions. It is easy to see that this list is full of pleasant experiences that people strive to find and prolong. We need positive emotions to function effectively, grow and prosper.

So, if we generally dislike experiencing negative emotions and enjoy experiencing positive ones, do we even need negative experiences? As it turned out, yes. Next, we will look in more detail at why this happens.

Why do people need emotions (the main functions of emotions)

Signal. Perhaps the most important function. Its essence is to express a person’s desire. It helps to understand what a person wants at a given time. Thanks to it, a person can build his future steps.

Motivational-regulating. In many ways similar to the signal one. Its difference is that it helps to build a plan of steps for the long term, while the signal one helps to make a decision immediately in a stressful situation.

Communicative. Of course, emotions play an important role in communication. Thanks to them, we can see what mood our interlocutor is in. We will be able to clearly see emotions such as sadness or anger and, based on the information received, we will understand how to build communication.

Protective. In some situations, emotions can save us from any external influences. For example, fear and cowardice will take us away from a dangerous place and save our lives and nerve cells.

Emotions largely depend on the person and his thoughts. If he thinks about positive things, then he will not be tormented by negative feelings. And if a person is fixated on the bad, then he will perceive everything bad that happens around him personally.

Why do people experience emotions?

Emotions arise spontaneously, but certain factors are necessary for their occurrence.
For example, if a person is in great pain, then you can see the corresponding facial expressions on his face, and he may also scream. Each person has his own emotional threshold of sensitivity. Therefore, each person reacts differently to the same situations. We probably have emotions because they help us survive. But they can also drive us crazy when they control us too much.

There is another reason why we have developed emotions. It lies in the fact that emotions help build relationships and connect communities of people. We would not be able to coordinate our goals so well if we did not love, fear, trust, and have a sense of pride.

A person is predisposed to experience certain feelings that are necessary not only for survival and relationship building, but also for everyday life. Without emotions we would live like robots. Work would be monotonous, like all of life. Emotions color our world.

Determination of human emotionality

What kind of mood does a person have - types in psychology

A brief presentation of emotionality is as follows. A person reacts to different events, experiencing joy, fear, pleasure, disgust, etc. All this (a person’s mood, feelings, emotions) is psychology, which is designed to teach an individual to determine his condition and be able to control it.

Emotions developed during evolution; it is with them that living beings are able to assess the biological significance of events and phenomena around them. Experiencing positive emotions, a person is ready to repeat a certain event. When faced with negative experiences, he will avoid such situations.

What types of emotions are there?

There are a large number of emotions, thanks to which we have the opportunity to better perceive our world. Until recently, scientists believed that there were only 7 basic feelings. However, recent studies have proven that there are many times more emotions, about 27.

Globally they are divided into three parts: positive, neutral and negative. According to the degree of manifestation, they can be sthenic (manifest very actively) and non-sthenic (almost not manifest).

Despite the fact that in the global sense there are only 3, there are many more subtypes:

  1. Basic. These emotions are inherent to every person. They do not depend on gender, age, nationality. Everyone knows how to be sad and happy;
  2. Variable. Due to territorial characteristics;
  3. Congenital. Emotions we are born with. For example, fear of heights;
  4. Purchased. Emotions that we acquire throughout life. For example, after a car accident, people may become afraid to drive private vehicles;
  5. Elementary. Neutral. Mainly emotions of calm;
  6. Composite. They are a combination of elementary;
  7. Natural. Inherent in man by nature
  8. Cultural. Emotions received in the process of learning from their parents or mentors;
  9. Cognitively simple. We experience such emotions as a result of instant reactions to any stimulus;
  10. Cognitively challenging. Unlike cognitively simple ones, such emotions are born after a deep understanding of what happened.

Thanks to the expanded classification system of our functions, we have many possibilities for expressing emotionality.

Positive emotions

As mentioned above, emotions can be negative and positive. Most people like to feel good, and positive emotions help us feel uplifted and more comfortable. Positive emotions usually do not need a reason; we feel them involuntarily.

Experiencing emotions such as happiness, excitement, joy, hope and inspiration are vital for anyone who wants to lead a happy and healthy life. Luckily, you don't have to experience them all the time to reap the benefits of positive emotions.

These moments, often fleeting, can be what make your life better and brighter. Beyond just feeling good, positive emotions are also an important part of happiness. Moreover, happy people live longer and work better.

Negative emotions

Negative emotion or affect is the experience of negative emotions such as anger, frustration, guilt, nervousness and fear. Causing negative emotions in your friends when they are enraged by your behavior is one of the ways to make them angry.

Therefore, it is important to learn how to prevent negative influences from affecting you and instead create positive emotions. To do this, it is enough not to be an irritant to other people and to behave correctly in certain situations. It is important to understand how much your behavior will be accepted by society at the right time.

A person can mask his emotions depending on the situation in which he finds himself. In our society, many emotions are considered to be a sign of weakness, therefore, people often hide their emotional experiences and try to smile in those moments when there is no joy in their souls

Calm, just calm! or Emotions are normal!

It is clear that it would be good, if not for every manager who has direct subordinates, then certainly for every HR specialist to have a personal coach, or even a psychotherapist.

Mainly due to the fact that in addition to his own personal work and work on emotional self-regulation (and the development of emotional intelligence in general), he often “collects” such work (grievances, grievances, conflicts, etc.) from the entire company, dealing working with the HR brand as a whole, mediation, layoffs, presentation of new motivational systems and other emotionally costly things. And that’s why it sometimes burns out faster than others.

At the same time, the role of coach and psychotherapist is required from HR itself, and it is unlikely that any employer will appreciate the idea of ​​​​hiring/paying a psychotherapist for a psychotherapist. Therefore, let’s figure out what can be done in this direction on our own.

First. Emotions are normal!

Oddly enough, despite the fact that many HRs “grow up with their feet” from psychology or related fields, for them it is not at all a priori an understanding of human feelings and emotions as the norm. HR, like the vast majority of managers, believe that a good specialist (no matter what profile) should be calm and impartial at work. And, accordingly, irritation, anger, resentment, fear and other human feelings are signs of stupidity/immaturity/unprofessionalism (underline as appropriate) and so on. Moreover, even if HR “allows” employees to show emotions, understanding that at work they are living people, then it definitely forbids itself (“I’m not angry, I’m not evil”, “I’m a psychologist, I have to do all this.” to be worked out”, “It’s just work, my feelings are in my personal life” - all kinds of justifications I don’t hear!). And he finds himself in the situation of a common demotivator today: “It’s hard to be kind - you’re constantly angry at those who are not kind.”

In fact, a person is an emotional being, and the emotions that he experiences are not divided into “good” and “bad”. Moreover, there is a physiological explanation for the fact that it is impossible not to experience emotions even for a short time (8 working hours): signals from the outside world entering the sensory center of our brain (thalamus) then go simultaneously to the emotional brain (which contains biologically active compounds - serotonin, adrenaline, etc.) and the cerebral cortex. So, the path to the cortex is longer, which is why the emotion comes first, and then everything else.

Therefore, the first step you can take is to admit to yourself: “I am a living person, I regularly (including at work) have emotions and feelings, I can be angry, offended, afraid, happy, surprised, etc. etc., and that’s normal!”

Second. Emotions tend to “accumulate” and become stronger due to this

It happens like this (let’s take the example of anger): at first we feel slight dissatisfaction, for example, with the behavior of a colleague, or with the words of a boss, or with our own results. If you don’t do anything with it (and it’s not clear what to do, and besides, “I’m not evil”), it gradually develops into irritation, which already begins to spread to the whole person or event (no matter what he says, everything irritates!) . If you do nothing with irritation (what can I do with it, I’m HR, they come to me for emotional support), or do nothing, but try to hide it, the next step becomes anger. It’s more difficult to contain anger, but it’s possible. And - it transforms into anger. But even this is not the last step, because, without being expressed, anger develops into rage. Now rage is an extreme degree of anger, and it is impossible to restrain it (this is what makes it different from all previous states). Almost everything you have heard about states of passion is about rage, in which people commit destructive actions that they don’t even remember.

Thus, in order to work more constructively with your emotional sphere, it makes sense for you to learn to track your feelings as early as possible, without waiting until you are “torn” (for more details, see the next paragraph).

Third. Emotions and feelings require expression and living.

Here I will use a harsh but powerful metaphor from my colleague. Imagine that for some reason you decide not to go to the toilet on principle. What will happen to you in a few days? In fact, there are only two options: you will either be “torn apart” (in the literal sense of the word, the organ responsible for this function will suffer), or even earlier intoxication (poisoning) of the body will begin, since everything that has accumulated in it will go “in reverse” . Exactly the same thing happens to us if we do not express our emotions and feelings: either at some point we simply begin to explode, no longer able to restrain ourselves, or we begin to suffer (the same poisoning) from psychosomatic diseases, from colds and allergies to oncology and heart attacks. And then those around him, family, friends are amazed: he was the kindest and calmest guy, but he just had a stroke at the workplace at the age of 35, where from?! Most often, it was from there: the kindest and calmest guy, like any living person, was irritated, offended, angry, but only directed a lot of effort into not showing this side. And so the body could not stand it.

By the way, it is more common for men to hold out until the last moment and then immediately get very sick (even to the point of death, unfortunately), while women either regularly “have hysteria” (explode), or in the most difficult moments get sick for a relatively short time with relatively “safe” sores (such as colds).

The fourth (follows smoothly from the third). Suppression and living are not the same thing

The leading request from both managers and HR related to self-regulation sounds something like this: how can I remain calm in any situation, how can I not get angry and “freak out” at my subordinates? Essentially, this is a question about how to avoid going to the toilet. The question of what to do with your emotions arises much less often, and if it arises, this is already a big step forward.

Making a lyrical digression, we note that almost all people who work with people (and often not only them) dream of managing human feelings. Arouse the right feelings in other people at the right moment, extinguish “unnecessary” ones, etc., without completely understanding your own. In practice this doesn't work. Only by learning to recognize your own feelings and manage them (not suppress, but express, live), can you learn to recognize the feelings of other people and, accordingly, influence them.

What to do instead of suppression, that is, trying with all your might to look calm and kind?

First of all, recognize your own feelings. That is, determine exactly what feeling you are experiencing right now (this will require training and feedback from others). Moreover, the more subtly you learn to distinguish between your feelings, the sooner you will be able to track their appearance and change (for example, at the level of irritation, not anger).

Next, feelings (especially strong ones) must be regularly verbalized, that is, translated into words. It’s best to speak out loud (at least in the “call a friend” or “talk to yourself” format). If you are not speaking out loud at all (for example, there are people around you), the translation into words can be done in writing, simply by writing down on a piece of paper what you feel.

And, of course, use methods of self-regulation focused on various aspects of the human being, such as physiology (body), imaginative thinking (imagination), consciousness, and the use of external materials.

It will be very cool to identify those areas that work best for you and collect in your piggy bank both emergency ways of working with emotions that will allow you to regulate online, as well as prolonged, preventative ones that will help you not accumulate emotions. Below are just some examples of such measures.

Self-regulation measures

1. Work at the level of physiology (body). All our feelings and emotions directly affect our body and, in fact, are “deposited” in it (not only by diseases, which happens with long-term suppression, but also simply by muscle tension). This is why emotions (oddly enough) can and should be worked through the body.

Emergency option: in a situation where an emotional reaction has already begun, the easiest way is to quickly regulate your state by breathing (by the way, with some training you can do this quietly and almost imperceptibly). To do this, it is enough to change the ratio of the length of inhalation and exhalation:

  • If you urgently need to calm down, take a short, quick inhale and a slow, drawn-out exhale (as happens when smoking), in a ratio of 1/4 or 8.
  • If, on the contrary, you want to tone up, take a long, slow inhale and a sharp, short exhale, in the same ratio.
  • You can also relieve excess tension (for example, from anger) through the muscles:
  • Clench your fists as tightly as possible and hold it until you feel that you can no longer hold them clenched, and they relax on their own. This method can be used even during a tense conversation (meeting, interview), just by briefly hiding your hands (or one of them) under the table.

If you have the opportunity to be alone for a few minutes, a great option is to use your facial muscles (since tension from unexpressed emotions accumulates in the face, in particular in the cheekbones): for a few minutes, do “frowning - frowning”, that is, first as much as possible squeeze your face “into a fist” (make your lips a “chicken tail”, frown your eyebrows, close your eyes, wrinkle your nose), as if you are collecting your whole face towards the center, and then “spread it” as much as possible (stretch your lips as wide as possible, raise your eyebrows, widen eyes). Repeat the same several times.

Preventative option: an excellent preventative measure is to work at the body level, allowing you to relax regularly: playing sports/fitness/yoga, walking, using breathing practices, visiting a bathhouse/massage room, etc.

The main thing is that this is done regularly and also meets the characteristics of your emotional sphere. If you feel most calm, just as tired as possible and having thrown out everything that is unnecessary, energetic types of body work, for example, martial arts classes, are suitable for you. If, on the contrary, you feel better sooner after deep relaxation, your option is closer to massage, yoga, and breathing practices.

Additionally, you can use voice work, in particular, periodically have the opportunity to literally shout out (this can be done either at special trainings or simply somewhere away from people).

2. Work at the level of images (imagination). Imagination is the strong point of the human being. It helps us not only to dream, but also, in fact, to transform events that have already happened (or are happening).

Emergency option: one of the most famous emergency methods of working with images is called “Aquarium”. Right in the middle of a difficult situation with employees, applicants, management, imagine that you are behind thick transparent glass, observing the process from the outside, and that their manipulations, complaints, aggression, etc. “do not reach you.”

If your feelings are constantly evoked by the same person, you can experiment with his image - for example, imagine him as a small screaming child in a diaper (you won’t be angry with the baby), a clown in a jester’s cap, a person with the head of an animal, or, conversely, - in general, find for yourself that image of an unpleasant interlocutor that will allow you to begin to experience other emotions directly in interaction with him.

Preventative option: as a preventive work with images, it is worth practicing the following skill: in the morning, getting ready for work (or already arriving at it), relax for a few minutes (preventive work with the body will help for this) and mentally draw yourself a picture of a successful day: interlocutors, with whom you need to communicate, are loyal to you, all assigned tasks are completed, projects give maximum results.

Do the same before any important/difficult event (meeting, conversation about dismissal, difficult interview): draw a mental picture of how everything went and ended in the best possible way, stay in it for a few minutes.

3. Work at the level of consciousness (“programming”). Imagination is a powerful resource, but in adults it does not always work, as they say, “at the snap of a finger,” so it is very cool to connect consciousness, which is definitely accustomed to being on guard 24 hours a day.

Emergency option: the most important quick method of self-regulation for an HR specialist (as well as for a manager) at the level of consciousness: “I’ll think about it.”

In order not only to give yourself the opportunity to quickly work through your emotions, but also to prevent undesirable consequences of your spontaneous actions, train yourself not to immediately respond to requests, complaints, manipulations of your interlocutors, no matter who they are (so that they wake you up at night - and the first thing you say is : "I will think!").

As soon as you feel irritation, anger, or some other emotion arise, say out loud to your interlocutor: “I need to think,” and then indicate the deadline for your response by writing it in your diary. This way you will get a pause to work with emotions and, in fact, “program” yourself to search for the most optimal option.

Of course, you can use not only this phrase, but find your own, or supplement it with other options, in the vein of “there is definitely an optimal option”, “I suggest we both think about this issue and have a meeting later”, “a pause will help us find the best solution " and so on.

Preventative option: a great way to prevent this is to work with your own attitudes.

On the one hand, it is difficult to identify one’s own attitudes, on the other hand, there is not always a need to do this.

You can simply verbally describe the version of your work and the results that you want to achieve, for example: “I am a successful HR specialist, my colleagues respect me. The results of my department/department are improving every day, the management is satisfied with me. I love my job". Next is a matter of technology. Every day (preferably 2-3 times), in a relaxed state (for example, in the morning after sleep and in the evening before bed), read what you wrote. Many psychological and near-psychological methods (affirmations, etc.) are based on this technology.

Why does this work? It's simple. With repeated repetition of the same thing (especially if it is done against a positive emotional background, which is what a relaxed state is for), a new neural connection is formed in the brain, and this “invented” text begins to be perceived as a real situation. Therefore, your behavior changes, leading to the desired results.

4. Work at the level of external materials. When feelings are strong, sometimes even a person with highly developed emotional intelligence may situationally lack only his own resource, and there is a need to use external materials.

Emergency option: the easiest way to self-regulate here is microdestruction.

Crumple or tear a sheet of paper into small pieces (preferably slowly and carefully, this will also involve other levels of work, for example, the body). This is how the “sheets of anger” that were fashionable some time ago appeared, which were proposed to be torn off the wall and crumpled.

If this action is not very correct in the situation, start drawing “scrawls” on the sheet of paper (this is usually not so noticeable) or coloring in the cells, pressing quite hard on the pen/pencil (then you can also crumple or tear them).

There are more “constructive” ways of using external materials. Look at a photo of a loved one, a pet, nature, or a screensaver on your computer (if the situation takes place at your workplace, this can be done directly online; if not, immediately after the end). Smell your favorite scent (to do this you will have to carry at least a small amount with you). Eat something tasty (similar) or drink your favorite tea/coffee.

Preventative option: from the point of view of prevention, working with external materials implies, to a greater extent, not destruction, but creation.

Create the perfect collage. Look in magazines, newspapers, etc. pictures and photographs that for you are the embodiment of the most optimal work, the goals you want to achieve in it, pleasant working moments. Cut out the pictures and paste them onto a large sheet of paper. Come up with inspiring inscriptions for each (this way you will also engage the level of consciousness).

Hang the collage in a prominent place and look at it every day.

In addition to the collage, in general, gradually create comfort and coziness in your workplace (even if it is not noticeable to others): select stationery that you enjoy using, put pleasant pictures on your computer screensaver, put your favorite photographs in a desk drawer, etc. P. All this will generally create a good background for constructive work with emotions, and can also be used for emergency self-regulation.

Returning to the peculiarities of emotions, I would like to summarize. If you use emergency methods of self-regulation that are suitable for you, if you have methods in your piggy bank that are non-traumatic for others and yourself, then you do not allow your emotions to accumulate (however, do not forget to recognize them first and pronounce them, at least for yourself and to yourself), and, Thus, do not bring the situation to a breakdown. This means that less and less often you have the question of how to be calm in a given situation (no suppression - no reinforcement - living becomes much simpler and faster).

And if you also use preventive methods, you allow previously accumulated “compressed” emotions to go away, as well as those remnants of them that nevertheless escaped your attention online.

List of all emotions (most common)

Among all known human emotions, the most powerful are the emotions from the list below:

  1. Anger. Has anyone ever told you not to do what you want? How are you feeling? Is your blood starting to boil, is your temperature rising? This is usually how anger is described. Your body reacts to something that is not happening your way, and this is an attempt to correct the situation;
  2. Sadness. If you miss a deadline, get a bad grade, or don't complete work, you'll probably feel upset. Sadness happens when we are unhappy with ourselves, our accomplishments, or the behavior of someone else around us. Sadness can be a healthy experience because it indicates that we are passionate about something. It can be a great catalyst for achieving change;
  3. Joy is a feeling of delight, happiness, and perhaps even euphoria, often experienced as a sudden surge due to something good;
  4. Hope is a feeling of optimism and anticipation of a positive future;
  5. Pride is a feeling of self-approval and pleasure in an achievement or skill.

To prevent your emotional state from harming you and your environment, you need to learn to control your feelings and emotions. Despite the fact that emotions arise on their own, it is quite possible to curb them. In any current situation, you need to look at the circumstances soberly in order to prevent bad consequences.

A list of a person’s emotions and feelings will help you understand your inner state. Using this table, you can divide our emotions into certain groups in order to understand your inner world more deeply and stop in time if the situation gets out of control.

Management methods

There are 3 most reliable and proven techniques with which you can effectively control emotional states.

Psycho-emotional regulation

This method of controlling the emotional state involves activating memories of good or bad events that were experienced previously. For example, to suppress feelings of anger, irritation, rage, it is enough to think about a life situation in which there was an excessive amount of positive emotions, a feeling of happiness, joy.

Regulation of mental process

This method of managing emotional states is more complex, as it requires control over the thought process and consciousness.

The implementation of this method is carried out as follows:

  • it is necessary to distract your thoughts from the negative events that occur in the environment;
  • switch attention to other objects and objects that do not cause negative emotions;
  • from each situation you should choose only that emotional component that does not cause stress;
  • always adhere to the principle of a positive interpretation of any event;
  • to attach insignificant significance to the current situation, as if it does not have any impact on life processes.

It is always recommended to redirect negative emotional impulses into various areas of life and professional activity.

Bodily regulation

This type of control over the emotional state involves performing distracting actions that do not allow you to focus on the feelings and emotional excitement that have arisen.

For example, counting beads located on hand rosaries. In this case, tactile contact of the fingers occurs, which creates a distraction effect. At the same moment, due to constant counting, attention dissipates.

An emotional state is a set of feelings, sensations, and emotional disturbances that are experienced over a long or short period of time. In psychology, scientists P.V. studied the psycho-emotional states of a person. Simonov, K.E. Izard, A.N. Leontyev.

Changes in emotional state occur under the influence of positive or negative environmental factors, and its forms of manifestation are closely related to all types of life processes. A person’s psycho-emotional states are filled with good and bad experiences, situations that influence his personal development and motivation to act.

How to learn to control your emotions

To avoid an outburst of emotions, it is worth taking a few simple steps to calm your agitated spirit and restless mind. When the situation passes, believe me, you will thank yourself for being able to keep your emotions in check and become your own boss.

Fully managing yourself emotionally requires mental discipline and sacrifice. For those who are primarily familiar with their sentimental experience, managing emotions can be one of the most difficult aspects of life.

Having a reliable method in your arsenal is a game changer. We are going to share a technique that many famous people use to constantly monitor their condition and free their mind from constant indulgence in the vast emotional palette offered to us all.

Everyone experiences negative and unproductive thoughts, and most of us can remember ones that have left us confused, wondering what alternate universe or reality they came from.

You can't always control the crazy things that come into your head, but you can control how long that thought stays constant, whether you allow it to take root, influence your feelings, and ultimately dictate your actions. Although you cannot have absolute control over your feelings, you can control some of them through closed action.

The path of closed action is a phenomenon in which a person suppresses feelings within himself for a certain period of time. For example, it is better to contain your anger if you are sitting in your boss’s office.

Depending on what emotions a person experiences. Internal energy in the body is concentrated in the form shown in the figure. Understanding this, you can direct the flow of this energetic charge in the right direction and learn to control yourself in any situation

Role and nature

Emotionality is a complex mental process consisting of three elements:

  • Physiological. Reflects the changes that occur in the body when certain moods manifest themselves: breathing rate, heart muscle contractions, hormonal changes, metabolic processes).
  • Psychological. Characterizes the experience itself: anger, joy, sadness.
  • Behavioral. Manifests itself in facial expressions, gestures and actions (inhibited reaction, activity, aggression, crying).

The first two components represent the internal formation of the emotional state, while the third is responsible for its external manifestations. Often a person finds himself in a situation where he cannot openly express his feelings. There is a need for a deterrent or time delay. But one way or another, it is necessary to throw out the excess energy that arises inside. This can be done through physical activity or performing household activities (cleaning, switching to a hobby).

Emotions have a number of special characteristics:

  • Polarity. They have a positive or negative connotation, although there may also be contradictions (you can love a person, but at the same time feel resentment, anger or anxiety towards him).
  • Energy charged. There are sthenic experiences (causing increased activity - fury, irritation, inspiration, delight) and asthenic (causing passivity - sadness, fear).
  • Integrity. Emotionality involves the interaction of all psychophysical aspects of the personality, which affect the entire body, manifesting itself in actions, in the body, and in the way of thinking.
  • Inalienability. Emotions cannot be separated from other processes occurring in the psyche. They accompany everything - both the work of the senses (separating the pleasant from the unpleasant) and the functioning of the intellect (causing interest or boredom).

How to express emotions

Many people find it difficult to express their emotions. Some people overexpress how they feel, while others don't share at all. Knowing how to accurately express your emotions will help you in your personal, social, and professional life. There are many theories and techniques that teach how to suppress or control emotions. This approach has been proven to not actually be effective.

Emotions and feelings are spontaneous and automatic, and must be felt and expressed. It has been scientifically proven that avoiding and suppressing them can have negative psychological consequences. Modern therapies such as acceptance, commitment and other techniques such as mindfulness can help you accept your feelings and learn how to restore them.

Your emotions are a part of you and need to be taken care of. To express emotions correctly, you must understand the situation you are in.

You need to learn to recognize feelings. You need to see the line between places where you can behave without restrictions, and where you definitely need to control yourself.

It is worth paying special attention to your inner state. To act and react correctly in certain situations, you must always be calm. If you are confused, then most likely the situation you are in will very quickly get out of control

External manifestation

Since there are so many classifications, it will take a long time to study their external manifestations. But for everyday life it is enough to know how the basic seven names manifest themselves. This will help you better understand others and allow you to correct your own reactions.

Recognizing emotions is often quite difficult, since a person rarely experiences one of them, usually several of them occur at once.

For example, when fear arises, a person may simultaneously experience shame, anxiety, self-dissatisfaction, or despair.

Also, recognition difficulties are associated with the fact that a person’s reactions are not always sincere; they are often designed for the surrounding audience.

Only a person is capable of experiencing a huge number of diverse mental processes. But in the modern world it is considered indecent to openly demonstrate one’s own experiences.

In addition, an open person becomes more vulnerable to others. On the other hand, forcibly hiding manifestations of emotionality, suppressing natural reactions, you can destroy the psyche .

Important! Suppressing natural emotions is harmful and is strictly not recommended. But you need to fight excessive emotionality

The least that threatens a person when natural reactions are suppressed is depression and various forms of neuroses. Also, when natural reactions are suppressed, the body’s endocrine system suffers.

This leads to hormonal imbalances and disruptions in the functioning of the thyroid gland and all other glands of the body.

As a result, the occurrence of physical and mental illnesses occurs. Therefore, suppressing natural mental reactions is harmful and is categorically not recommended.

However, some people are overly emotional. For them, repression occurs more slowly than accumulation. As a result, such a person quickly becomes irritated and an explosion of emotions occurs, characterized by a violent emotional reaction.

We must understand that this is an emotional reaction in which the volitional control of behavior weakens. This state makes it easier for a person to move to action. The phenomenon is short-term, after which powerlessness, complete apathy, and drowsiness appear.

You need to fight excessive emotionality. It is recommended to use physical exercises, screaming into a pillow, meditation and breathing complexes for this.

Benefits and harms of emotional state

Sometimes an emotional state can lead to a real disaster. This happens because there is always a need for a balance between negative and positive emotions. If you are too happy, almost to the point of euphoria, you will not be able to concentrate on work or school and will subsequently produce poor results.

This fact is called compensation. We also get harm from negative feelings; we can be sad for so long that we become depressed. We can also benefit from our emotional state. Thanks to some facts that please us, we feel more confident and courageous.

You should take your ability to control your own emotional state very seriously. After all, it has long been proven that oversaturated emotions can cause serious illnesses

Damage to the integrity of your energy shell opens up the possibility of many mental and physical illnesses. In the early stages of this gap, you can correct this situation without much difficulty.

You can seek advice from healers who will explain your problem and help prevent further destruction of the energy shell.


So, emotions are an important chemical process inside the human brain that regulates the psychological part of his life.

Feelings help us respond to any stimuli from the outside world. As a rule, they are accompanied by some changes in the body. They are divided into several types and have many functions. They brighten up our lives and, without any doubt, are our internal guidelines that help us choose the right step in any situation.

People need to be sure to respect their emotions and not keep them inside, as this can be dangerous due to the possibility of falling into depression and other mental illnesses.


  • Subjective. The emotional state contributes to the formation of a certain point of view in the individual, and also allows one to establish connections with the outside world. Everything that happens is perceived by a person through the prism of his sensations.
  • Communicative. With the help of such mental properties as empathy, we can determine the mood in which another individual is, which helps to establish contact or even manipulate others.
  • Behavioral. Determining the vector of behavior, separating the pleasant from the unpleasant, the important from the unimportant.
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