How to save a drowning person without getting hurt yourself? (2 photos)

With the onset of summer, accidents on the water are very common; this can happen to anyone, regardless of age and gender, be it an adult man or woman, a small child or teenagers.

It is quite difficult to determine when a person is drowning and when you need to use all your strength to save him. The fact is that a drowning person, most likely, will not wave his arms and call for help; he simply will not have the strength to do so.

But there are a number of signs by which you can determine whether a person is drowning or not:

  • Cough. When water enters the lungs, a reflex cough occurs. If someone in the water coughs, you need to make sure everything is okay with him. Perhaps it is a common cold, or perhaps a fight for life.
  • Glazed , unfocused gaze at one point.
  • If a person tries to push off the surface of the water with his hands , from time to time disappearing under it like a float, while remaining in one place.
  • Another sign of a drowning person is the fact that if hair obscures his eyes, he does not try to remove it.

Our article will reveal information that will tell the reader how to quickly determine whether a person is really at risk of drowning or not.

If so, it is necessary to rescue him immediately, since a person still on the surface may find himself at the bottom in just a minute.

How to prevent drowning: actions when you see a drowning person

Call the rescuers

If you witness someone drowning, first of all evaluate your strength.
If you are not a very good swimmer and do not know the basic techniques for catching a drowning person, under no circumstances should you try to save a person by swimming to him.

Because a drowning person may well drag you to the bottom.

Call for help. If there are no lifeguards on the beach, get the attention of other people.

Throw a circle or air mattress

If a person is not far from the shore, you should try to extend your hand, some long object, or throw a life preserver.

To prevent a drowning person from dragging you into the water, lie on your stomach as close to the water as possible, spread your legs wide and extend a strong hand to the person in the water.

Because the drowning person is under the influence of adrenaline, he may not notice your hand.

Say it clearly and loudly, but without screaming hysterically, so that the person grabs your wrist.

This is very important because:

  • Firstly, your task is to calm the victim, and not to scare him even more by yelling at him.
  • Secondly, the wrist-wrist grip is the strongest and the risk of the hand slipping is reduced to zero.

If you cannot reach a drowning person with your hand or a long object, throw him a lifebuoy after tying it with a rope. You should loosely wrap the rope around the hand you are not using to throw the circle, and step on the end of the rope with your foot.

It is best to aim at the area behind the drowning person, and then simply pull the circle towards him. As you throw, allow the rope to swing freely, but be sure to secure the end with your foot.

It is important not to hit the drowning person in the head, as this will only make things worse. Yell at the person in the water to grab the circle. As soon as he does this, immediately pull him to the shore.

Swim up

You should only enter the water if there is no other way to help a drowning person.
You should minimize the distance to the drowning person along the shore and make sure that there are no whirlpools in the water.

It is better to take some kind of floating device with you (the same lifebuoy).

It is strictly forbidden to jump into the water or dive, as there may be pitfalls at the bottom.

You should also not go into the water with a running start - save your strength, you will need it later.

Before entering the water, you must take off your shoes and outerwear, and turn out your pockets (otherwise water will accumulate in them, making movement difficult).

It is important to remember that even if you are strong enough to swim to a drowning person, you will also need to deliver him to the shore. So swim fast, but save your strength. To reach a person in the water as quickly as possible, swim freestyle.

The first reaction of a drowning person will be to climb onto the rescuer. To prevent this from happening and both of them going to the bottom, you should swim up to him from below and from behind, grabbing his shoulder or hair, and pulling his head to the surface.

This method will protect you from catching a drowning person and at the same time provide him with air. Order to grab the circle and immediately start moving towards the shore - your strength is not unlimited.

Look behind you from time to time to make sure the person is still holding on to the circle. Upon reaching the shore, help the drowning person get out of the water.

What to do if you start to drown

1. If you feel that your strength is leaving you and you are starting to drown, do not panic, calm down! If you panic, you will not be able to loudly call for help, as you will choke on water even more. 2. Take off excess clothes and shoes. 3. Use one of the methods of staying on the water: 1st method - pose on your back:

  • roll over onto your back, spread your arms wide, relax, take a few deep breaths.

Method 2 - horizontal pose

  • Lying on your stomach, take in lungs full of air, hold it and exhale slowly.

Method 3 - “float”

  • take a deep breath and immerse your face in the water, hug your knees with your hands, press them to your chest and exhale slowly under water.

4. When you have more or less calmed down, call for help! 5. If you hurt yourself during a dive and lose coordination, exhale a little: air bubbles will show you the way up. 6. If you are pushed or fall into a deep place, and you do not know how to swim, push off from the bottom, jump and take in air. Then stay on the water using the above methods.

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How to save a drowning or drowning person on the water

When relaxing on the sea, lake, river, if it is necessary to provide assistance to a drowning person, we must clearly control our actions and know how best to save a drowning person on the water. We will list the basic rules, actions, methods of saving a drowning person on the water and answer questions about how to save a drowning person on the water.

How to save a drowning person on the water: 1. Attract the attention of others by loudly shouting “The person is drowning!” 2. Ask people to call rescuers and an ambulance. 3. Throw a lifebuoy, a rubber bladder or an inflatable mattress, or a long rope with a knot at the end close to the drowning person, if such a means is available nearby. 4. Take off your clothes and shoes and swim to the drowning person. 5. If, when talking to a drowning person, you hear an adequate answer, offer him your shoulder as a support and help him swim to the shore. 6. If a drowning person is in a panic, do not let him grab your arm or neck, turn him with his back to you. 7. If he grabs you and drags you into the water, use force. 8. If you are unable to free yourself from the grip, take a deep breath and dive under the water, pulling the person being rescued with you. He will definitely let you go. 9. Grab the person by the head, arm and swim to the shore. Make sure his head is always above the water. 10. On shore it is necessary to provide first aid and eliminate oxygen deficiency.

How to rescue a drowned person on the water

If you see a drowned person without moving, remember that paralysis of the respiratory center occurs 4-6 minutes after filling with water, and cardiac activity can persist for up to 15 minutes.

Therefore, do not miss the chance to save a person, but we must remember how to quickly save a drowned person on the water.

How to save a person who has just drowned on the water: 1. Attract the attention of others by loudly shouting “The person has drowned!” 2. Ask people to call rescuers and an ambulance. 3. Take off your clothes and shoes and swim to it. 4. If the person is upright in the water or lying on his stomach, swim up to him from behind, put your hand under his chin and turn him over onto his back so that his face is above the water. 5. If a person is lying on his back in the water, swim from the head side. 6. When a person dives to the bottom, look around and remember the landmarks on the shore so that the current does not carry you away from the dive site, then dive and begin to look for the drowned person underwater. 7. Don’t give up trying to find and save a person; this can be done if the drowned person was in the water for no more than 6 minutes. 8. If you find a drowned person, grab him by the hair or hand and, pushing off from the bottom, float to the surface. 9. If a drowned person is not breathing, give him several breaths “from mouth to mouth” right in the water and, grabbing his chin with your hand, quickly swim to the shore. 10. Grab the person by the head, arm, hair and swim, towing him to the shore. 11. On shore it is necessary to provide first aid, eliminate oxygen deficiency, and apply resuscitation measures.

What to do if a person chokes on water

If you swallow water:

  • try to turn your back to the wave without panic;
  • press your arms bent at the elbows to the lower part of your chest and take several sharp exhalations while simultaneously pressing on your chest with your hands;
  • clear the water from your nose and perform several swallowing movements;
  • Having regained your breathing, swim to the shore on your stomach;
  • if necessary, call people for help.

If another person chokes:

  • If a person is slightly choking on water, tap them between their shoulder blades to help them clear their throat.

Rules for capture and transportation

To successfully carry out a rescue mission, it is not enough just to be able to swim well, you also need to know a number of rescue techniques, because even if you safely swim to the person and take him back to shore, in between this there is a capture stage.

If you don’t know what to do, if a drowning person begins to pull you to the bottom, you may not only fail to save him, but also drown yourself.

A drowning man remains calm

If a drowning person does not resist and remains calm, transportation is greatly simplified. In this case, the following towing method is used:

  1. Turn the person's back to you.
  2. Place your hands on his lower jaw.
  3. Place your fingers on his chin, but under no circumstances close his mouth.
  4. Straighten your arms, lie on your back and, moving your legs, tow it to the shore.
  5. The face of a drowning person should be kept on the surface of the water at all times.

Drowning in shock or panic

If a person is in panic, it will be more difficult to bring him to shore:

  1. First, turn the drowning person on his side.
  2. Pass your hand under the armpit of the drowning person's upper arm.
  3. Grab the victim's forearm or other hand with the same hand.
  4. Position yourself on your side.
  5. Using your legs and one arm, transport the drowning person to the shore.

Transporting a drowning person

The rules for rescuing a drowning person also apply to further movement with him through the water. The tactics of behavior here depend on his condition. If he is calm and adequate, you can easily transport him after he firmly grasps your shoulders.

If a person in a panic randomly grabs you, first try to relax and dive under the water with him. Then, when he releases you and rushes towards the surface, you will have a chance to grab him correctly. The ideal grip option is to place a hand that is comfortable for you under the drowning person’s arm from the back and grab his opposite shoulder. In this case, you will have to swim sideways, using one free hand.

If a person behaves calmly, he can be transported in other ways. For example, while lying with your back on the water, you can use one or both hands to hold his chin above the water. If you hold your chin with one hand, you can use the other to row.

Another option is to place your strong hand under the same hand of the drowning person and use it to support his chin. You can hold a drowning person from behind by the hand lying on his chest and passing through the armpit of the second hand. The best way to rescue a drowning person will be determined by the situation.

Basic techniques against uncontrolled grabs of a drowning person

If a drowning person grabs your arms, head or body and does not let go, thereby dragging you to the bottom, use the following techniques:

  • If a person grabs your hand with his, you should sharply turn it against the victim’s thumb and pull it towards you.
  • If the drowning person grabs both of your hands, do the same.
  • Before you release, take a deep breath into your lungs and push off with your whole body into the water.
  • Whatever happens, push the drowning person up into the air - this creates a greater chance that the person will calm down and not drink too much water.
  • If you are exhausted and want to take a break, leave the drowning person not on the surface, but under water.
  • If a person grabs your head, take a deep breath and dive - the drowning person will immediately unhook.
  • If the victim grabs you by the body, hit him hard in the side with your elbow.
  • If a drowning person grabs you by the neck, you need to grab him by the lower back with one hand, and push his head with the other, resting his chin.
  • Also, in case of any grab, you can force the person to let you go by pressing on pressure points such as the groin and throat.


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It is your direct responsibility to help a drowning person. In order for help to be effective, it is not enough to be able to swim; you must also know a number of rescue techniques.


Swim up to the drowning person quickly, but rely on your strength.
Tired, tired, you are unlikely to be able to provide real help. Swim up from behind, thereby depriving the drowning person of the opportunity to grab your hands or head. Only very good swimmers can ignore this rule. First of all, strive to raise the victim’s head above the surface of the water, making it easier for the drowning person to breathe. Having received air, the drowning person stops making convulsive movements, which only complicate his rescue.

If a drowning person grabs your arms, legs or head, immediately take measures to free yourself.

When grabbing one of your hands, sharply turn your hand against his thumb and jerk him towards you.

If your hand is caught between two hands of a drowning person, act as shown here. If both of your hands are grabbed, turn them against the thumbs of the drowning person and at the same time pull your hands towards you.

Before freeing yourself, inhale the air and move your entire body into the water.

The drawings show the basic techniques for releasing grips from both arms from behind, from the torso from the front and from behind. In all circumstances, push the victim upward. If you get tired and want to take a break, do not swim away from it on the surface, but leave by diving underwater.

Your task is to quickly deliver the drowned person to the shore.


Turn the drowning person's back to you, place your palms on the lower jaw, fingers on the drowning person's chin, without covering his mouth. Straighten your arms. Lie on your back and, using breaststroke, swim to the nearest shore. Keep the face of a drowning person on the surface at all times. Another position is also suitable. Turn the victim slightly onto his side. Pass your hand over the armpit of the drowning person's upper arm. With the same hand, grab the hand or forearm of the drowning person's other hand. Turn yourself onto your side. Working energetically with your arms and legs, swim to the shore on your side.


If a drowning person loses consciousness, immediately upon arrival on shore, apply artificial respiration.
Artificial respiration is performed by compressing the victim's chest at regular intervals 15-16 times per minute.

Contracting and expanding, it makes the same movements as during normal breathing. Swimming 100 meters in the free style is considered excellent if the distance is covered in less than 2 minutes 10 seconds, and good - if the time is 2 minutes 10 seconds - 2 minutes 25 seconds

Swimming in a suit is considered excellent if you swim 40 meters, and good if you swim 30 meters.

Long diving is considered excellent at 12 meters and good at 10 meters.

Swimming at a distance of 400 meters is passed after a thorough study of different styles.

You should strive to meet these standards, to minimize the time spent swimming any distance.


Each swimming lesson must be strictly regulated, since the load experienced by the body without habit is very high.
A swimming lesson lasts approximately 45 minutes and consists of exercises on land (10 minutes), introductory exercises (30 minutes) and exercises to gradually reduce the load after classes in the water - gymnastics (5 minutes). For non-swimmers, it is best to practice in a group. Under the guidance of an instructor, you will learn how to work your arms and legs on land using a bench or board.

Gradually, classes must be transferred to water, to a shallow place, no deeper than 1.4 - 1.5 meters. It is highly recommended to study footwork using the crawl and breaststroke methods, holding your hands at the side or sitting on the side of the pool.

When learning crawl style swimming while standing on the bottom, start by working with one hand. Later you will move on to mastering working with both hands. The next stage is the work of one hand in connection with the breath and, finally, the work of the hands and breath.

It’s very good if you have auxiliary equipment at your disposal: rings, belts, etc. They will support you on the water and give you the opportunity to focus all your attention on the correct functioning of your arms, legs, and breathing apparatus.

However, do not get carried away with unnecessary auxiliary shells. Once you feel confident enough, free yourself from belts, circles, no matter how good they are.

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How to rescue: first aid on land

Depending on the type of drowning, the following steps should be taken:

  1. If the drowning is “white,” that is, if the person could not breathe and was already unconscious in the water, resuscitation should be started immediately: artificial respiration and cardiac massage should be performed.
  2. If the drowning is “blue”, then the person swallowed water and was still conscious during the rescue - water should be pumped out of the lungs.

Artificial respiration and chest compressions are done as follows:

  1. A cushion is placed under the head.
  2. The nose is pinched with the fingers.
  3. The mouth opens slightly.
  4. Standing on your knees near the victim’s head, you should exhale air into his mouth once every 4 seconds.
  5. In the interval between breaths, it is necessary to make rhythmic pressure on the chest in the place between the nipples. It is necessary to press with such force that the sternum moves downwards by 5 cm.

Artificial respiration and chest compressions

It is preferable to resuscitate a person together: someone does artificial respiration, and someone does cardiac massage.

remove water from the victim’s lungs like this:

  1. Get down on one knee.
  2. Bend the drowning person over his knee with his stomach down.
  3. Hit him hard on the back in the stomach area. All the water will flow out.

If the person is conscious

If upon arrival on shore a person is conscious and breathing normally, it is necessary to immediately rub him with a dry towel, give him something hot to drink and take him to a warm room or wrap him in clothes and blankets, since regardless of the temperature of the air and water, the thermoregulation of a drowning person is impaired .

Even if the victim is calm, looks well and says he is fine, it is necessary to take him to the hospital, since drowning in fresh water requires antibiotics to prevent infection, as well as oxygen inhalations and bronchodilators.

If a person is unconscious

If, after delivering a drowning person to the shore, you find that the person is unconscious, you must immediately remove water from his lungs and begin resuscitation.

Don't rely only on yourself. Call for help. Ask someone to call an ambulance while you begin providing first aid.

Ask someone to call an ambulance while you begin providing first aid

It may happen that a person has a pulse, breathes normally, but is unconscious.

In this case, it is necessary to clear his mouth of silt, algae and vomit and lay him on his back, throwing back his head and extending his lower jaw.

You should also wrap him in blankets and clothes to normalize his thermoregulation.

If a person has no pulse

If the pulse cannot be felt, it is necessary to immediately begin chest compressions and artificial respiration.

It should be remembered that any actions to revive a person without artificial respiration lose all meaning.

If a person does not come to his senses, then it is necessary to continuously perform cardiac massage and artificial respiration until the ambulance arrives or until there are obvious signs of biological death.

How to save a drowning person without drowning yourself?

We talk about the correct algorithm of actions in case of an emergency on the water.

— I saw your news about the men who saved a boy in Vyatka. And that there were no lifeguards on the beach at that time. A lot of people drown here during the summer, and I often go to the river. I would like to know what to do if you see a person drowning.

Let's start with the fact that swimming is officially permitted only on equipped beaches inspected by the Ministry of Emergency Situations. Swimming areas must be equipped with a rescue post, have visual limits to the swimming area (for example, buoys), and the bottom of the reservoir must be cleared. Otherwise, swimming in the reservoir is prohibited; you can only relax on the shore.

On this topic

“He was unconscious, his eyes were black, all the whites were covered in blood”: Kirov residents told how they rescued a boy who was drowning in Vyatka


However, Kirov residents often neglect safety measures. Thus, since the beginning of the swimming season in the Kirov region, six people have already drowned, including children. Most of the accidents occurred in places where swimming is prohibited. However, there are exceptions: on July 14, two men rescued a 10-year-old boy drowning in Vyatka in the area of ​​the city beach, where lifeguards were supposed to be there, but there were none. The city administration explained that lifeguards are on duty on the water in the area of ​​the city beach only from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. and only in warm, sunny weather. The rest of the time they only patrol the territory once an hour. Therefore, even on an officially equipped beach, rescuing drowning people can become the work of the drowning people themselves or other vacationers.

How to understand that a person is drowning

It is worth noting that recognizing a drowning person is not always easy. Contrary to popular belief, a drowning person will not loudly call for help, pull his arms out from under the water, or slam his hands on the water: all these signs are contrary to physiology. In order to scream, a person needs to breathe normally, and when drowning, their hands are instinctively used for something else: they are spread out to the sides to push off the water and swim upward.

Specialists from the State Inspectorate for Small Vessels of the Kirov Region identify the following signs of a drowning person:

  • position of the mouth: in a drowning person, the head is usually immersed in water, and the mouth is located at the very surface and periodically goes under the water, then appears above the surface. So the body tries, while floating up, to inhale as much air as possible. Another position: the drowning person tilts his head back, opens his mouth;
  • body position: a drowning person remains upright until the last moment. It may even seem as if the person is climbing an invisible rope ladder;
  • hand position: drowning people cannot wave their hands to attract the attention of others. When they begin to drown, they instinctively stretch their arms out to the sides to push off the water. It doesn’t always work out, so if you see a person hitting the surface with his hands, be sure to check if everything is okay with him;
  • gaze: most drowning people usually either close their eyes altogether, or stare blankly at one point, without focusing. Sometimes this may be the only sign of drowning. It is also worth paying attention to a person if his hair has covered his eyes, but he does not try to push it away.

If you see warning signs, call out to the person and ask if they are okay. If they don’t answer you or you get a blank look in response, you need to immediately begin rescue. But only if you know how to swim. If not, call for help.

Rescue technique

Having noticed a drowning person, determine if there is something at hand that can be thrown to the victim (rope, wooden board, lifebuoy, etc.). If there is nothing suitable, you should swim to the victim, after encouraging him with a shout.

When approaching a drowning person, you need to dive under him and, grabbing him from behind (you can grab him by the hair), swim to the shore. A drowning person may grab you by the arm, neck or legs. In this case, dive immediately - the instinct of self-preservation will force the victim to let you go.

If a person has already plunged into the water, do not stop trying to find him and then bring him back to life. This can be done even if the drowning person has been in the water for about 6 minutes.

Types of drownings

Having pulled the victim ashore, determine the type of drowning: the nature of first aid will depend on this. Drowning may be blue or pale, depending on the color of the victim’s skin.

Blue drowning occurs when a drowning person fights for his life until the last minute. Usually people who cannot swim or children who find themselves in the depths drown this way. With blue drowning, the victim’s skin becomes blue-gray, pinkish foamy liquid is released from the mouth, breathing becomes bubbling, frequent coughing with pinkish foamy sputum is characteristic, and the blood vessels of the neck swell greatly.

Pale drowning occurs when a person drowns unconscious (hits their head while diving or before falling into the water, loses consciousness from shock) or falls through the ice. At the same time, unlike blue drowning, water does not enter the lungs and stomach in large quantities, which increases the chances of saving the life of the victim. In case of pale drowning, the skin is gray, and there is no foam from the mouth and nose.

First aid to the victim

In case of blue drowning, the first thing to do is to throw the victim over the knee face down (a large person can be sharply lifted by the waist together), put two fingers in his mouth and sharply press on the root of the tongue to provoke a gag reflex and stimulate breathing.

On this topic

Where can and where can’t you swim in Kirov?


If, after pressing on the root of the tongue, you heard the characteristic sound “E” and this was followed by gagging movements, if you saw the remains of eaten food in the water pouring out of your mouth, then in front of you is a living person with a preserved gag reflex. Indisputable evidence of this will be the appearance of a cough. For 5-10 minutes, continue to periodically press firmly on the root of the tongue until water stops coming out of the mouth and upper respiratory tract.

If, when pressing on the root of the tongue, the gag reflex does not appear, if there is no coughing or breathing movements, turn the person onto his back and immediately begin artificial respiration. You need to act similarly in case of pale drowning: you don’t need to waste time removing water from the lungs (there is none there), you need to immediately start artificial respiration.

If the victim has palpitations:

  1. kneel to the left of him, throw back the drowned man’s head as much as possible, open his mouth and plug his nostrils;
  2. take a deep breath, put your lips to the victim’s lips through a handkerchief or gauze (if you have them at hand) and exhale forcefully, count to four and repeat until breathing appears.

If there is no heartbeat

, artificial respiration must be combined with chest compressions:

  1. place the victim on a hard surface (it is useless to perform chest compressions on loose sand), kneel to his left, tilt the drowned person’s head back as far as possible, open his mouth and plug his nostrils;
  2. Place one palm across the lower part of the sternum (but not on the ribs!), the other - crosswise on top of the first. Press on the sternum so that it bends 3-5 cm and release. You need to bend with straight arms, strongly, with a push, using your body weight. After each blowing, do 4-5 pressures. Children and infants should not take a full breath to avoid rupture of the lungs. Children should apply pressure on the sternum with one palm, and for infants with two fingers;
  3. do 30 pressures, repeat the combination “2 breaths + 30 pressures” (for children the ratio is 2:15);
  4. do not stop resuscitation until emergency services arrive or until signs of life appear. It is possible to maintain life in a lifeless person through artificial respiration and cardiac massage for an hour.

As soon as the victim shows signs of life, place him on his side. He must remain in a stable condition until the ambulance arrives. Even if the victim’s relatives or friends insist on letting him go home, insist on an “emergency”: even after rescue, there remains a threat of repeated cardiac arrest, development of pulmonary edema, cerebral edema and acute renal failure. Only after 3-5 days can you be sure that the victim’s life is no longer in danger.

Rules of conduct on the water

To avoid a tragedy, the Ministry of Emergency Situations strongly recommends following the rules of safe behavior on water:

  • You can swim only in permitted places; children must swim in the presence of adults, even if the child is not far from the shore;
  • do not dive in unfamiliar places: there may be submerged logs, stones, snags, and metal rods at the bottom;
  • do not play games in the water that involve grabbing;
  • do not go into the water while drunk - this is the main cause of drownings;
  • do not swim far from the shore without calculating your strength. This is dangerous even for good swimmers;
  • do not swim up to passing ships, do not cling to them.

Briefly about the main thing:

  1. As a rule, a drowning person does not wave his arms or call for help, as is shown in films. In a drowning person, the head is usually immersed in the water, and the mouth is located at the very surface and periodically goes under the water and then appears on the surface; the body is in an upright position, the eyes are closed or the gaze is not focused.
  2. If you know how to swim, shout out to the drowning person and swim to him. Dive under it and, hugging it from behind, head towards the shore.
  3. Having pulled a person ashore, you need to quickly determine the type of drowning. In the case of blue drowning (this is the most common case), his lungs must be freed of water by pressing the root of the tongue with your fingers. If the victim does not show signs of life, immediately begin artificial respiration and chest compressions if there is no pulse.
  4. Continue resuscitation until the ambulance arrives. It is possible to keep the victim alive with artificial respiration for an hour.
  5. After a person begins to show signs of life, he needs to be placed on his side. He must be in a stable condition until doctors arrive.

If you have questions that you can't find the answer to, ask us and we will try to answer them.
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Water safety rules

There are some water safety rules:

  • It is prohibited to swim while intoxicated.
  • Bathing time should be short.
  • You cannot swim if less than half an hour has passed since your meal.
  • Do not swim during rain, storm or hurricane.
  • Children should not be left in the water unattended.
  • You should not dive in untested places.
  • If you are not confident in your swimming abilities, you should not go into deep water without a life preserver or someone who is a really good swimmer.
  • Even an excellent swimmer can drown due to a cramp. It is recommended to attach a pin to the swimsuit and, in case of a cramp, strongly prick the affected area.
  • You should not jump into cold water from extreme heat. In this case, the heart may stop. It is necessary to first moisten the skin with water, thereby cooling the body a little, and only then dive.

How to save a drowning person without getting hurt yourself? (2 photos)

So, you purposefully and confidently move towards the drowning man. Remember that you only need to swim up to it from behind. If a person is in an insane state, he may grab onto you and try to lean on you, as a result of which he will begin to pull you to the bottom. If you can’t swim up from behind, then dive under him, grab him by the hips and turn him back to you.

According to Anufriev, under no circumstances extend your hand to a drowning person - he may grab onto it in such a way that it will be difficult for you to free yourself. With one free hand, you will not be able to stay on the surface of the water and will not be able to swim to the shore.

When you approach a person, you can, according to the Ministry of Emergency Situations employee, use one of the following methods of capture. The simplest one is to grab the hair. Towing in this way ensures that the drowning person will not grab you and that you can float face forward, helping yourself with one hand. Another method of transportation is by the armpits: in this case, you swim “backwards” and drag the victim along with you. The third option involves using a “sea grip” - to do this, you need to insert your hand under the victim’s armpit and place it on the opposite shoulder. True, you will have to swim sideways, helping yourself with one hand. But the victim will be securely fixed.

If you had to reach the bottom to escape, then, having grabbed the person, push off from the bottom in order to float to the surface with less effort. The victim can only be transported face up! If you use a sea grab or drag him by the armpits, his face will be on the surface. If you pull the hair, be sure to monitor the position of the head so that the person has constant access to air.

If the person has come to his senses and returned to an adequate state, then you don’t have to make much effort for transportation - give him the opportunity to grab his shoulder with one hand. At the same time, his arm should be fully extended so that the victim does not trample you. If you have the strength, talk to the person to calm him down.

It is best to pull an unconscious victim ashore by the armpits. If a person fell into the water from a great height, he could theoretically be injured. With this in mind, place it on the shore on something flat and solid - for example, on boards or a shield.

According to Anufriev, these measures will help pull a person out of the water without the rescuer being injured. At the same time, the Emergencies Ministry employee reminds: throw yourself into the water only if you are 100 percent confident in your abilities. Otherwise, a ruthless river or sea will add two corpses to its account at once.

Tips and tricks

Consider the following recommendations:

  • If, while rescuing a drowning man, you realize that your life is in danger, do not risk it and retreat. Reassess the situation, call someone for help.
  • You should only enter the water if nothing else can be done, since being in the water with a person under the influence of adrenaline is dangerous for both him and you.
  • If a drowning person is not far from the shore and you can reach him with your hand, you should not do this while standing, since with almost one hundred percent probability he will drag you into the water.

Emergency assistance for drowning

When an accident occurs, you need to act quickly. If there is no professional rescuer or medical worker nearby, then first aid for drowning should be provided by others. The following steps should be followed:

  1. Wrap your finger in a soft cloth and use it to clean the rescued person’s mouth.
  2. If there is fluid in the lungs, you need to put the person on his knee with his stomach down, lower his head, and make several blows between the shoulder blades.
  3. If necessary, perform artificial respiration and cardiac massage. It is very important not to put too much pressure on your chest to avoid breaking your ribs.
  4. When a person wakes up, you should free him from wet clothes, wrap him in a towel, and let him warm up.

Difference between sea and fresh water for drowning

An accident can occur in various water sources (sea, river, swimming pool), but drowning in fresh water is different from immersion in a salty environment. What is the difference? Inhaling sea fluid is not as dangerous and has a better prognosis. The high salt concentration prevents water from entering the lung tissue. However, the blood thickens, causing pressure on the circulatory system. Complete cardiac arrest occurs within 8-10 minutes, but during this time it is possible to resuscitate a drowning person.

As for drowning in fresh water, the process is more complicated. When fluid enters the cells of the lungs, they swell and some cells burst. Fresh water can be absorbed into the blood, making it thinner. Capillaries rupture, which impairs cardiac function. Ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest occur. This whole process takes a few minutes, so death occurs much faster in fresh water.

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First aid on the water

A specially trained person must be involved in rescuing a drowning person. However, it is not always nearby, or several people may drown in the water. Any vacationer who knows how to swim well can provide first aid. To save someone's life, you should use the following algorithm:

  1. You need to gradually approach the victim from behind, dive and cover the solar plexus, taking the drowning person by the right hand.
  2. Swim to the shore on your back, row with your right hand.
  3. It is important to ensure that the victim's head is above the water and that he does not swallow any liquid.
  4. On the shore, you should put the person on his stomach and provide first aid.

Massage and ventilation

Artificial ventilation of the lungs is carried out using the “mouth to mouth” method.

After inhaling and pressing your mouth to the child’s mouth, blow air into his lungs, while pinching the victim’s nasal passages. The frequency of insufflations during resuscitation of children under one year of age should be 38–40 exhalations per minute, for older children - 20–24 exhalations.

After finishing the inflation, you need to make sure that the baby’s chest is lowering. If the air does not enter the lungs, but does not come out into the stomach and back, then with each blowing the upper part of the abdomen will rise.

Photo: AiF

Indirect cardiac massage will help maintain at least minimal blood circulation.

The child should lie on a hard surface (bench, floor). To improve blood flow to the heart, elevate his legs and place something under them.

If the child is under 8 years old, place the palm of your left hand on the lower third of the sternum along the midline and apply rhythmic pressure at a frequency of 80-90-100 times per minute. The sternum should bend under your hand by 2.5–3.5 cm.

For children over 8 years old, massage is performed with both hands: place your left palm on the lower third of the sternum, place your right palm on top and press on the sternum with a frequency of about 80 movements per minute so that the sternum moves by 4-5 cm. Keep your arms straight!

If two people provide assistance, then one of them “breathes” and the other performs a cardiac massage; from time to time they should replace each other. You need to act in the following rhythm: 30 pressures on the chest, then 2 blows into the airways.

When providing assistance alone, the rhythm of actions is maintained: 30 to 2. Resuscitation should be carried out for 25–30 minutes or until the ambulance arrives.

Do not forget about the need to warm the victim: remove wet clothes from him, wrap him in a blanket.

By the way

Signs of the effectiveness of resuscitation measures: disappearance of cyanosis, pallor, marbling of the skin; the appearance of a pulse in large vessels (carotid, femoral); constriction of the pupils; the appearance of spontaneous breaths.

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