“Spiritual and moral education - as the basis for the harmonious development of a student”

Where does the education and development of modern society begin?

Several theoretical developments have been created regarding personality formation. In psychology, everyone applies, since no single solution has been found. Let us consider these approaches in detail in terms of understanding the beginning of the development process of each member of society.

  1. Psychoanalytic theory considers development to be an adaptation of the biological essence of people to society. The individual develops defense mechanisms and agrees on methods for satisfying needs.
  2. The doctrine of personality traits presupposes their formation during life. They are transformed according to laws that do not directly depend on biology.
  3. Social learning theory is the development of ways to interact with other people. In the process, personality is formed and developed.
  4. There are also humanistic, phenomenological theories that describe the formation of the “I”.

So, first, human consciousness begins to form in one environment or another. Social environment as the initial condition for the direction of development. The integrative concept of development considers the integrated person as a whole, applying various teachings and approaches. Both systemic and interdependent improvement are taken into account, attention is paid to each side of the human “I”. A representative of such a concept is the theory of E. Erikson, an American psychologist. He assumed that the formation and development of personality goes through stages predetermined genetically. These stages reflect a person's entire life.

Their alternation is marked by changes in the inner world and relationships with the environment. Each stage brings something new that is unique to it. Moreover, for this to happen, prerequisites must have been formed in the past, certain behavior and psychology must have developed. This is how personality develops, during which not only good but also bad qualities appear. In E. Erikson’s display, only two lines are highlighted along which the formation and development of personality takes place. The first is the norm, the second is an anomaly. In strictly this form they practically do not exist, but they include all intermediate variations.

Erikson indicated 8 life crises that are inevitable for everyone

Taking into account all possible critical moments, the moral development and education of the individual goes through 8 age stages corresponding to them.

  1. Trust or distrust in 1 year of existence.
  2. The age of up to 3 years is characterized by the acquisition of autonomy against doubts and constraints.
  3. The emergence of initiative, balancing guilt (up to 6 years).
  4. Hard work, which arises as a way to overcome feelings of inferiority (up to 12 years).
  5. Self-determination versus uninteresting personality (under 18 years old).
  6. Sociability with elements of intimacy instead of isolation (up to 20 years).
  7. From 30 to 60 years of age, a person tries not to “immerse himself in himself”, but to engage in the education of generations and care.

After 60 years, a person should not come to despair, but to contentment.

  • The child communicates with adults. If he is surrounded by love, trust appears. And when requests are ignored or neglected, mistrust arises, like a trait. Next, the preconditions for striving for society or withdrawing from it are formed.
  • By the age of 3, self-confidence and independence are formed. While still dependent on adults, the child develops insecurity and doubt in his abilities if the nature of communication with his parents is not conducive to the norm.
  • Stages 3 and 4 - the emergence of curiosity, interest and activity (from 3 to 11 years). A love of activity and communication skills emerge. In the anomalous course of events, spiritual self-development comes to passivity, indifference to others, and a feeling of inferiority.
  • At the fifth stage (up to 20 years), personality is determined according to guidelines. Negative spiritual self-development can manifest itself in the form of confusion of roles, both gender and social. Knowing yourself occurs at the expense of creating relationships with the outside world.
  • In the period from 20 to 45 years, personal life is realized. In case of failure comes isolation from other people, unpredictability, and promiscuity in relationships.
  • Stage No. 7 is dedicated to the creative life of a mature person. The abnormal line manifests itself in the form of selfishness, lack of productivity at work, and may be accompanied by diseases,
  • After 60 years, a person weighs and evaluates the life he has lived, which can be realized either by satisfaction or by realizing the meaninglessness of the path traveled.

Commonalities in different concepts

All concepts (not only E. Erikson) highlight the importance of study and work during periods when the spiritual and moral development of the individual begins. The position of our domestic scientists is different in that a growing person should develop cognitive skills, and not qualities associated with future activities. That is, activity, initiative, or it will be passivity, reluctance to work, an inferiority complex in the event of negative developments.

The condition for development in adulthood, according to E. Erikson, is the acquisition of new social roles. In this case, the anomalous line of events is presented in the form of pathologies, although it could be described in other forms.

Ways to develop moral qualities

Let's move from theory to practice and consider ways that can help modern man become more moral and conscious.

Reading classic literature

When communicating, it is almost always noticeable when a person reads a lot of classics - he has a rich vocabulary, he can express his thoughts concisely and competently.

In addition, works from the school curriculum, which at one time were read “for show,” can bring a completely different effect upon reaching a certain age.

Read more: Benefits of reading books

Over time, it becomes clear to us why the heroes of the works behave this way and not otherwise. We return to those times and begin to delve into the true concept of love, honor and conscience.

Classic books take us away from the realities of the modern world to a time when the concept of morality was as mandatory as speaking a foreign language in modern companies today.

Books and trainings


It would seem that in the modern abundance of literature and information on various topics one can find everything one needs. In fact, it is not so easy to find something worthwhile among low-grade novels, creations of self-proclaimed psychologists, astrologers and psychics.

If you go to the library and make a request for books on the development of moral qualities, then, most likely, the reader will receive several copies that are twenty or thirty years old. This kind of literature was used by teachers at a time when there was no widespread access to the Internet.

Among the abundance of information, you can still find truly valuable samples that allow you not only to replenish your knowledge base, but also to understand yourself and understand the existing problems.


The same can be said about various trainings. Most of them are aimed at the average consumer, so classes are conducted on the topic of how to keep your husband, earn a million or achieve success in life.

However, among such events it is also possible to find lessons from experienced specialists. They don’t teach you how to make money or go above your colleagues to gain a new rung on the career ladder—such specialists will help fill the gaps in moral education.

A truly experienced specialist can help the listener significantly simplify his life, thanks to the opportunity to develop moral qualities.

Psychologists and "gurus"


Let’s immediately clarify the concept of “guru” - in this context, it is a representative of any religion who can understand the situation and give useful advice.

There is a lot of information in the Bible, the Koran, and books of other religions that allows a person to become more moral and conscious.

If you skip the data about specific deities and rituals, and treat these books as a collection of valuable information, you can reap significant benefits for yourself.


Modern psychologists work with different tools that allow them to solve a particular problem. Basically, today people come to specialists with a desire to understand themselves, improve relationships in the family, or with questions in the field of raising children.

It’s not often that people want to fill in the gaps in moral education, so there are few specialists who can really help with this.

In this case, it is not so important in which direction of psychology the specialist works - the main thing is that he is a person who is endowed with moral qualities and can help another person in this matter.

Opportunity to help selflessly

Among the moral qualities, it is worth highlighting the ability to love and understand other people, the ability to sympathize and provide sincere support. To develop these qualities in yourself, you need to make a habit of providing someone with all possible help.

What could it be?

  • Organizing a charity cleanup of the area or participating in an already planned event. Such experience will help not only develop the above qualities, but will also help you become closer to nature, develop the ability to work in a team and work together towards a common result.
  • Help an orphanage or boarding school. It is not so easy to communicate with such children, but often only such an experience can provide an opportunity to look at your life from the outside. Thus, a person not only does a good deed, but is also clearly aware of the situation other people are in. He feels compassion, sympathy - these qualities also relate to moral ones.
  • Help an animal shelter or zoo. One of the moral qualities is also love for nature and understanding of its laws. When helping our smaller brothers, a person develops responsibility for the weaker and helpless, and learns to give freely.
  • Help for low-income families, pensioners, people without a fixed place of residence. In this case, a person experiences different feelings, and also develops moral qualities - the ability to selflessly help and empathize, to empathize with other people.

Spiritual component

History proves the great importance of education in social development. At the same time, morality and spirituality are part of the worldview. Responsibility appears, the nobility of the individual is formed. The resulting values ​​unite people, which becomes the basis for the stability of individual life and the state. Where to start spiritual transformation? It is necessary to take into account that the state of people’s inner life is no less important than the progress and improvement of the entire society, the pace of which depends on:

  • civil position of each member;
  • will and motivation;
  • life values;
  • beliefs about morality, norms and ethics.

Spiritual values ​​are an important condition, in the presence of which moral development and education of the individual can be successfully carried out. During this process, the interaction between teachers and students forms a harmonious person.

Where to start spiritual development: main directions

When developing a personality, awareness of the value system of both moral and national order is required. These include the basic norms and standards that apply in relations between people, within the family, and within society. As well as principles, criteria for understanding good and evil, the ability to distinguish truth from lies. Where to start with spiritual and moral education? Scientist V.I. Pavlov indicated the following directions.

  • Formation of a sense of duty and responsibility.
  • Moral character: patience, mercy.
  • Attitude, ability to distinguish between good and evil, willingness to overcome life's problems.
  • Behavior: ability to reason, will.

The social environment, as a condition for the development of a harmonious personality, is important. Therefore, ensuring it is a key goal of the state policy of the Russian Federation. An appropriate environment ensures spiritual progress. It will be more comfortable for a person if it does not condemn him for certain views. Therefore, the worldview should be similar, which will add motivation to the process of personal improvement. In difficult moments, a properly created environment helps to cope with problems. Finding a mentor is also an important focus. Having a high spiritual level, he will point out mistakes and give advice on development.

The main goal of spiritual self-development

Those who want to engage in self-improvement often face a number of problems. Some people lack money, others experience discord in their relationships. Still others do not have sufficient health. But difficulties push a person to improve the organization of his life. The spiritual and moral development of people and the education of the individual have the main goal of understanding the nature of the individual. As well as establishing or restoring relationships with the environment in which he lives. This is usually a long but important process that gives meaning to all activities.

Spiritual practice is the basis of self-awareness

The development of human spirituality and morality becomes complete and becomes relevant when implemented in life. The social environment, as an environment, is filled with problems that require moral choice in solving them. Daily spiritual practice frees the consciousness from material dependencies and false values. The result is improvement and progress.

What are we talking about?

Textbooks on raising children and adolescents usually discuss this topic as one of the mandatory topics.
Among the moral qualities, the concept of conscience is often mentioned, love for the Motherland, respect for parents and others, belonging to the family and the state are mentioned.

Such qualities are usually not included in the list of advantages when writing a resume or cover letter. At the same time, the problem of moral education is much more obvious for society than, for example, the lack of people with higher education or the ability to drive a car.

In addition, moral qualities must be instilled in a person from childhood and brought up during adolescence. If there are any gaps or difficulties in this matter, then, unfortunately, not many people of conscious age recognize the existence of a problem.

Not every adult will openly say that he was not brought up with the correct attitude towards nature, others, and the state. He will rather begin to develop those qualities that will help him achieve success in his work, as well as take his rightful place in society.


The effectiveness of educational programs largely depends on the example of the teacher. His moral value is determined by the standards and norms of morality that guide him in the course of professional implementation, as well as by behavior. The teacher’s attitude towards work, their students, and colleagues is of great importance. The morality of the teacher in the formation of socially mature individuals predetermines their choice of spiritual tradition.

Promoting self-determination, developing students' abilities, and imparting knowledge are required for socialization. But by themselves they do not form sufficient prerequisites for free self-improvement. A person must have the ability to distinguish between good and evil, value work, family, society and others. Morality, which arises on the basis of correct example, helps protect the consciousness from deformation.

Basic values ​​of modern society

Citizens who accept not only universal human values, but also national foundations, follow them using the concepts of law-abidingness and order. Thanks to this position of members of society, resources appear for the financial and social development of the country. As well as ensuring the quality of public relations and activities. The Constitution of the Russian Federation states that the highest value is the person himself, his rights and freedoms. In this case, the individual bears the same responsibilities as others.

We should not forget how important the relationship between the physical and spiritual development of an individual is. Types of activity, choice of activities for its implementation, motivation, sports build confidence and self-esteem. The harmonious correspondence of the two types of education helps a person acquire immunity to stress and determination.

Goals and tactical tasks of educating a civic personality

The development of spirituality and morality for the education system is a goal of primary importance. In this multifaceted process, society’s resources are directed towards education:

  • citizenship;
  • activity;
  • responsibility;
  • ability to create relationships with various social institutions.

Education performs a key function in the formation of spirituality and morality. The goal is to create a cohesive society capable of meeting the challenges of implementing this concept. By strengthening solidarity, a significant level of trust in fellow citizens, the country and its future life is established. Personal values ​​also develop in families and teams.

How to develop moral qualities?

If the reader is one of those people who are prone to introspection and have the ability to objectively evaluate themselves, then sooner or later such a question will arise before him. Not every one of us is endowed with all the moral qualities of a developed, intelligent person in the generally accepted sense.

In addition, the realities of modern society often dull the sense of conscience, compassion or respect for other people. A person who is usually kind to others and also understanding of other people's shortcomings may show a different side of himself in some situation. This depends on the individual characteristics of each person, his ability to develop certain skills through willpower, control himself and observe principles.

Scripture Study

When considering the questions of where to start spiritual self-development, as well as how it will happen, it is necessary not only to understand the purpose of this process. You need to choose directions, including religion and choice of religion. It is also necessary to create an appropriate environment and engage in recommended spiritual practice. The Holy Scriptures point to this. When studying them, one should not forget about development in the physiological sphere.

Moral education

Ideas, principles, laws, norms and rules of behavior in society are components of moral education. In short, it is based on the development of the following qualities:

  • feelings of kindness;
  • helping one's neighbor;
  • feelings of sympathy;
  • the need to follow human morality.

To do this, you need to accustom the child to moral standards, form his positive moral experience, direct his behavior, feelings and consciousness towards the realization of moral values ​​and form the moral character of the individual.

In this case, a child, teenager or adult is the object of moral education, and the family, school and other public organizations influence him. But conscious self-education is also possible, when a person himself forms activities aimed at improving moral qualities and the formation of habits and behavior in accordance with the ideals accepted in society. In this case, techniques such as self-esteem, self-order, self-hypnosis, self-correction, self-regulation, self-approval and self-punishment are used.

Philosophical education

Despite the fact that philosophy is a difficult science for children to understand, it is still the child who asks the first serious questions about existence, the universe and the meaning of life. This is due to the fact that the baby is not yet bound by stereotypes and does not know philosophical concepts, and the adult, due to his knowledge, is embarrassed or afraid to ask any questions. Because of the purity of consciousness, the child is freed from embarrassment and fear.

A child, and later a teenager, needs to be explained in simple language such philosophical categories as matter, movement, space, consciousness, time, freedom, ideal, truth, goodness, justice, morality, reason.

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