Types of relationships between a man and a woman. What are the types of relationships called?

What is interpersonal relationships

Interpersonal relationships are relationships that arise directly between individuals (two people or in a group) in the process of communication and cooperation with each other. Their distinctive features: reciprocity, direct contact. The success of interpersonal relationships depends on three components:

  1. Understanding. A person immediately finds a “common language” with some people, but cannot understand others. Mutual understanding is achieved when there are common views on life, goals, interests, and similarities in character. In addition, the desire to understand the other must be mutual, both interlocutors must show interest in communication;
  2. Interaction is the ability to carry out joint activities and combine efforts to achieve the expected result. If the goals of the participants in the relationship differ, there can be no talk of interaction. Only the presence of a common goal and objectives can unite the disparate activities of people;
  3. Mutual perception is people's assessment of each other's physical characteristics and mental abilities. In the process of learning the external characteristics and character traits of the interlocutor, a person develops a response to this person.


Example. 7-b has a new biology teacher. The teacher and the class immediately established a good relationship. He organized the activities in the lessons in such an interesting way that all the students began to happily do their homework, although they had not done this before.

Interpersonal relationships can arise between people according to their personal desire or under the influence of external factors.

In the first case, it will be much easier to achieve mutual understanding, since the desire to communicate was joint, the commonality of interests attracted people to each other. In the second, conflicts and disagreements may arise between participants in interpersonal relationships, since they were united by someone’s will, a decision that they need to cooperate.

Example. The school class is formed by the school administration, and not as a result of the personal wishes of the students. Not all classmates in the class will become friends with each other; some may have conflicts due to mutual rejection.

What is important for a woman in a relationship

No matter how strong love is, it will not last long if the partners behave incorrectly. This largely depends on the behavior of women, since they are better able to avoid sharp corners in conflict situations. The comfort in the home and the calm atmosphere in the family depend on the woman. She needs to take care of her husband and children, be an affectionate mother and a good wife. Then her instincts will be fully realized, and she will be truly happy.

For a woman in a relationship, it is important that an alliance be formed that allows her to show her best qualities. If the husband does not strive for family comfort, then the woman will lose the desire to provide him.

In a family, both partners must be able to give in and take into account the opinion of the other. But the following qualities are still required from a woman:

  • Patience. Very often, men are impulsive and hot-tempered, and women break into hysterics, further aggravating the situation. A wise woman will wait until the storm subsides and talk to her partner when he calms down;
  • The ability to forgive. If a man has made a mistake, you should not break off the relationship because of this;
  • Loyalty. If a woman is prone to cheating, such a union will not last long. If she remains faithful to her husband, he will trust her infinitely and will be calm for her;
  • Respect. You need to value and respect your partner under any circumstances.

Sympathy and antipathy

The basis for interpersonal relationships is the feeling of sympathy and antipathy. Sympathy is a feeling of disposition towards a person, a positive assessment of his moral qualities, appearance, and character traits. Sympathy brings people closer to each other and creates ideal opportunities for successful cooperation. The manifestation of sympathy is expressed in a friendly disposition towards a person, an expression of interest, and benevolence.

Sympathy arises naturally and spontaneously, often due to a coincidence of views and interests. It is impossible to force a person to feel sympathy or antipathy for another. Therefore, sympathy must be mutual for successful interaction.

Antipathy towards a person manifests itself as a feeling of rejection, internal dissatisfaction with the behavior and appearance of another. Such a person can cause unreasonable irritation simply by his presence and cause bad emotions. Antipathy is a fertile basis for interpersonal conflicts, disagreements, and rivalry.


The reasons for antipathy may be unclear even to the person experiencing this feeling. Sometimes, it arises as a reaction to the dissimilarity of another, his fundamental differences from the rest of society, and may be associated with established stereotypes. Stereotypes are an opinion established in society about representatives of a particular group, which is often erroneous and exaggerated.

Examples of stereotypes: all girls are stupid, boys should not cry, a woman driving is worse than a nuclear weapon, all rich people are greedy.

Thus, even without really knowing a person, a preconceived opinion and antipathy may be formed towards him in advance.

International family law

This right is exercised not only within one specific state, but also beyond its borders.
International norms in the field of family legal relations, as a rule, are regulated by local authorities and determined by the legislation of each state, however, each of them has a basis, which is the foundation of such relations.

Family legal relations in private international law in most countries are regulated by family law and have practically no relation to civil law, however, there are exceptions.

According to Roman law, any relations involving family legal relations in private law are regulated by the state and its legislation in whose territory they occurred.

Attention! There are exceptions! For example, the Customs Union between Russia, the Republic of Belarus and Kazakhstan involves joint regulation of rights and all related aspects.

Informal relationships

Interpersonal relationships may differ in the presence or absence of certain rules of communication and interaction. In this regard, the following types of interpersonal relationships are distinguished: informal (personal) and formal (office).

Informal relationships develop synchronously, based on feelings of sympathy, kinship, and mutual disposition. Such relationships are regulated by the participants themselves, without submitting to any rules established from outside. Informal relationships include relationships between friends, relatives, acquaintances, and classmates.

Example. Friends decide for themselves when and what time to go for a walk; a friend will not punish his friend for being late for a meeting. Communication between them occurs on equal terms; there are no strictly established rules of interpersonal interaction.

Informal relationships develop of the participants' own will; they are highly selective, carefully studying the personal qualities of the individual. This is not in vain, because such relationships are the closest, and you need to know a person well before becoming friends with him, trusting him.


Also, informal relationships can be interrupted by mutual desire, or even by the will of one of the participants. Often friends stop communicating because of hurt feelings, unjustified hopes, and expectations. Often, these are temporary disagreements, followed by reconciliation, but sometimes friends part for life.

Personal relationships: subtleties of the concept

Based on the name, one can understand that personal relationships are communication between people, that is, individuals, based on individual psychological characteristics. The main factors that underlie this type of relationship are feelings - interest, first of all. It is important to note that personal relationships can develop both in a positive and negative direction, in other words, among the emotions that force people to enter into personal relationships are:

  • sympathy/antipathy;
  • interest;
  • love/hate;
  • attachment;
  • enmity;
  • respect;
  • suspicions;
  • confidence.

One could go on and on about the range of feelings and emotions that push people to enter the plane beyond which the stage of personal relationships begins. Friendship, care, participation - all this is a manifestation of a personal relationship with another person.

Naturally, personal relationships cannot be built solely on emotions. Any relationship, including personal relationships, is no exception, has a subjective coloring - which is why, even among like-minded people, some may not support the interests or inclinations of others. A striking example, often found in friendly companies, is that different people have radically opposite attitudes towards the same person - someone admires him and uses him as an example as a positive person, while others shun him and consider him a source of negative emotions. This happens precisely under the influence of personal relationships.

In addition, personal attitude towards a person does not depend on his age or position in society; his profession and hobbies also do not greatly influence the opinion he makes on others. Much depends on the character of a person, his behavior and attitude towards others, as well as on what kind of people he allows into his social circle. This is why personal relationships are built differently for each person - some are the life of the party without making any effort, while others have to prove to others that they can communicate with them without harming their reputation. Personal relationships are a multifaceted world, filled with emotions and constantly changing, supplementing, and improving.

Wherever a person lives and works, where he communicates with other people, he has a wide variety of relationships with them: from casual, insignificant to long-term, stable, from purely formal to friendly, intimate. Relationships can be divided into two groups: official

(official, business) and
(friendship, comradeship, friendship). Business relationships are determined by production, educational, social activities and their social framework: teacher-student, boss-subordinate, doctor-patient, etc. Personal relationships can also arise on the basis of any specific activity.

Relations of the first group are regulated by legal and (to a lesser extent) moral norms. Among the moral ones, the role played here is primarily those that arise from the requirements of official duty. Personal relationships are regulated mainly by moral norms and are determined, as a rule, by a community of interests, mutual sympathy, and a sense of respect. To a large extent, they depend on the personal characteristics of people.

In real life, these two groups of relationships are not sharply differentiated. So, for example, in any class there are two systems of relationships between students. First, the system of responsible dependence

, or business relationships (elder, Komsomol organizer, etc.), and, secondly, a system of friendly, or simply friendly, relationships. These two systems are interconnected, intertwined, but do not completely coincide.

The demands that participants in one or another type of relationship make to each other are also different, and the motives for choosing, for example, a class leader or a friend, are also different. Thus, the headman must be efficient, organized and sufficiently demanding. The popularity of a student in the class in the system of personal relationships is usually determined by those qualities and personality traits that are highly valued in this group.

What determines a student’s popularity in the system of personal relationships in the class? Research by psychologists has revealed various parameters that influence the degree of popularity of a particular student in the class. These are, first of all, the personality and character traits of children. So, for example, “collectivists,” i.e., students with a social, collectivist orientation, are more recognized in the class, regardless of their position in the system of business relationships, than “egoists,” students with an egoistic orientation. People who are more balanced, calm, and friendly can count on greater recognition of themselves in the team. Naturally, the significance of one or another criterion changes with the age of the students and is not the same for girls and boys. In the lower grades, a student’s position in the class is greatly influenced by his academic performance, discipline, and appearance. In high school, these are intellectual qualities, erudition, and sometimes strength and dexterity (for boys), external data (for girls), the presence (or absence) of fashionable and prestigious things.

Psychologists have identified another pattern: the more a student values ​​his class, the higher the place he occupies in the system of personal relationships, that is, the team, as it were, returns to him his high assessment of the class. Often, who is popular in a given group can be used to judge its values. Thus, in a class that is not focused on spiritual values, students who have prestigious things may be popular.

The basis of personal (friendly, friendly) relationships is, first of all, the sympathy (antipathy) of people entering into such selective, unofficial relationships. What is the reason for and on what basis does the mutual attractiveness of people arise?

They got along.
Wave and stone, Poems and prose, ice and fire, Are not so different from each other. At first, due to their mutual diversity, they were boring to each other; Then we liked them, then we got together every day on horseback and soon became inseparable. So people (I am the first to repent) There is nothing to do, friends.

Well, what does science say about this now? Let's use some of the data that Leningrad psychologist N. N. Obozov cites in his book “Interpersonal Relations”. First of all, it should be said that the emergence of interpersonal attraction is only the first phase of relationships between people. Such relationships are called “friendly”, they do not oblige anyone to anything and can last for a long time without turning into deeper, more intimate relationships - friendships, love. And to the question of what attracts or repels two people: similarity, resemblance or difference, there is no (and probably cannot be) an unambiguous answer; depending on what the similarities are, what the differences are, what the communication situation is. The results of numerous studies allow us to identify some factors that may contribute to the emergence of sympathy and antipathy. Firstly, it is of great importance in what “setting” people interact – in a situation of cooperation or competition. The first situation leads to an increase in the attractiveness of the other person and contributes to the emergence of deeper and more lasting sympathy; the second situation, accordingly, reduces the likelihood of interpersonal attractiveness. Further, the coincidence of value orientations (i.e., central, main interests, views, principles, attitudes) has a significant impact. A very large role belongs to the nature of a person’s idea of ​​himself and of others: this is the correct perception of positive and negative character traits, similarities in the assessment of the main and differences in the assessment of secondary qualities in ideas about oneself, etc. How ambiguous the influence is similarities - differences for the emergence and maintenance of feelings of sympathy - antipathy are indicated by the following data.

Combinations in friendly couplesCombinations in mutually rejecting couples experiencing hostility and antipathy
1Normative and weakly norm-oriented1A pair of equally normative
2Couple with the same motivational tension2Couple with different motivational tension
3Worried and preoccupied or carefree and carefree3Concerned and carefree
4A pair with equal sophistication or realism4Sophisticated and realistic Anxious and confident
5Couple with the same level of anxiety5
6A couple with the same emotional and behavioral instability6Emotionally mature and emotionally unstable in behavior

The influence of similarities—differences in people’s temperaments—is also ambiguous. As is known, the characteristics of the nervous system and, accordingly, the characteristics of temperament significantly influence the nature of communication. So, for example, the property of mobility - inertia is combined with the characteristics of communication in the following way.

With a mobile type of nervous systemWith an inert type of nervous system
1. The speed of establishing social contact1. Slowness in establishing social contact
2. Variability, instability of contacts2. Permanence of relationships
3. Speed ​​of response to the behavior of the communicating person3. Slowness of reactions to the behavior of a communicating person
4. Initiative in forming relationships and communicating4. Low activity, inertia in establishing contacts
5. Width of social circle5. Narrow social circle

If we compare the ratio of the temperamental characteristics of people in friendly couples (i.e., where sympathies for each other are stable and deep) and mutually rejecting couples (with stable antipathy), a rather complex and ambiguous relationship will emerge. Melancholic people have the widest range of combinations with other types of temperament: they can be good friends with sanguine people, phlegmatic people, and melancholic people of their own kind. Antipathies more often arise in choleric-choleric, sanguine-sanguine couples, but they practically never happen in phlegmatic-phlegmatic couples.

Thus, even this brief information shows that interpersonal attractiveness, which is a necessary condition for the emergence and maintenance of friendly, friendly relationships, arises due to very diverse reasons that are in complex combinations with each other. Therefore, we can firmly say that none of the characteristics of a person (and especially none of the aspects of his temperament) is an obstacle to the establishment of friendly relationships, to normal, satisfying communication with other people.

“Interpersonal relationships are subjectively experienced relationships between people”

Dictionary "Psychology".

    Relationship between people.

The relationships that arise between people in the process of their communication, in joint activities, are defined as social relations. For example, these include: industrial, political, legal, moral, religious, psychological, etc.

Relations between people are also usually divided into official and informal in accordance with the organization in which they are formed. Official relations are authorized, documented and controlled by society or its individual representatives. Informal relations may be maintained by one or another organization, but they are not regulated by documents. You can also distinguish between business and personal (or interpersonal) relationships. Business relationships are related to and determined by study or work activities. Personal relationships can be evaluative (admiration, popularity) and effective (related to interaction). They are determined not so much by objective conditions as by the subjective need for communication and the satisfaction of this need. In the structure of interaction and communication between people, as a rule, there are three components: behavioral, affective and cognitive (according to Ya. L. Kolominsky).

Towards behavioral

The component includes the results of activities and actions, facial expressions, gestures, pantomime, locomotion (movement in space), and speech.


the component manifests itself in a variety of emotional states and can be recorded at the level of physiological recording and subjective reports. For example, by the presence (and intensity) of positive and negative emotions, conflict (intrapersonal, interpersonal), emotional sensitivity, satisfaction with oneself, partner, work, etc.


the component includes all mental processes associated with cognition of the environment and oneself (for example: sensations, perceptions, ideas, memory, thinking, imagination).

Friendship, camaraderie

For every person, reliable friends are of great value. There are many sayings, proverbs, and fairy tales on the topic of the importance of friendship in human life. There may be many friends, acquaintances, comrades, but only a select few become friends.

Friendship is a selfless interpersonal relationship based on sympathy, affection, common views on life and goals. The following qualities distinguish true friends from acquaintances:

  1. The ability and desire to come to the rescue in difficult times;
  2. The ability to keep secrets (this is how trust is established);
  3. Lack of envy, a feeling of joy in the event of sudden luck, happiness befalling a friend;
  4. Empathy, interest in a friend’s life, his well-being;
  5. True to your word.

To find a true friend, you yourself need to try to possess the above qualities, because friends are chosen based on their common interests, character, and perception of the world.

Partnership is mutual assistance, respect and goodwill between the participants in the relationship. Comrades do not communicate as closely and confidentially as friends, but their relationships are also built on sympathy and common interests. Most often, they become comrades by engaging in common activities: study, work, progress towards a common goal.

Example. There are 25 students in 6-a. The whole class has good relationships and there are no conflicts. All classmates are friends with each other, but everyone in the class has only 1-2 real friends.


For most people, communication related to production activities is an integral part of life. In such a situation, the parties enter into business relationships that are in many ways not similar to ordinary ones. Such relationships have their own rules and ethical standards, knowing and observing which is very important for the successful advancement of any business. This especially applies to production organizers and people in management - communicative competence for them is an important component of their professional appearance.

At the same time, people can be dear to each other, close to each other outside of work or study, in the family. In this case, the relationship is defined as personal. It is difficult to imagine anyone's life without the presence of this kind of communication in it.

Formal relations

Formal relationships are official interpersonal relationships that are subject to certain rules established from the outside. They are subject to a certain order of interaction, where each participant in the relationship has his own role. Official (formal) relationships include relationships between: an officer and soldiers, a student and a teacher, a foreman and a worker, a restaurant administrator and a waiter, a director and a secretary.

Examples of formal relationships

Sphere of relationships, participants Accepted rules Punishment for breaking the rules
Army (participants in relationships, employees of higher and lower ranks) Lower ranks must obey the orders of their superiors, military personnel must adhere to the rules of the military regulations. Emergency duty, departure to the guardhouse. If failure to comply with an order caused significant harm to the interests of the service, criminal liability is established for it.
School (teachers, students) Students are required to come to class on time, do homework, wear a school uniform, and adhere to disciplinary rules. Teachers have the right to punish students with bad grades, unsatisfactory behavior, and calling parents to school.
Store (seller-buyer) Each product must indicate the price and expiration date. Buyers must pay in full for the purchased goods. If the product turns out to be expired, the buyer has the right to return it to the store. If a seller deceives their customers, they are subject to a fine, and in some cases, criminal liability. A fine or criminal liability awaits the buyer who decides not to pay for the goods.


Thus, all interpersonal relationships, the rules of which are documented, are considered formal.

Reasons for occurrence

Such conditions can arise only depending on a number of certain factors. Features of family legal relations are as follows:

  • property relations between users of law are based, first of all, on non-property relations;
  • a long process that inextricably connects close people;
  • relations can be carried out exclusively on a free basis;
  • relations are integrally connected with direct legal factors, which include the conclusion and dissolution of marriage, establishment of paternity and other civil legal acts of a similar nature.

Legal relations between parents and children in family law, as well as spouses and other close relatives, are determined by the Family Code and are divided into the following categories: personal property and personal non-property.

Personal non-property rights arise only when an official marriage is entered into or dissolved, and the status of the relationship between parents and children changes.

A striking example of a personal non-property family legal relationship is the child’s enrollment in school to receive a quality education, which is both the right of the child and the responsibility of the parents.

If the spouses opened a family restaurant, the type of legal relationship becomes property - any real estate or common business becomes common until the marriage is dissolved, and after that it is divided in equal shares or in others, if this is provided for by a court decision.

Property relations also include alimony obligations, which are imposed on one of the parents in the event of a divorce when there is a child.

It is important to understand that personal relationships play a key role in the formation of such interaction - they determine the content of those rules that regulate legal aspects.

Civil law applies to family legal relations only in cases where a property issue arises concerning disputes and distributions in the event of any changes in the status of each of the parties to this dispute.

Family legal relations do not include legal relations concerning criminal or administrative violations of one of the spouses or family members, disputes over property acquired before marriage.

Relations of production

One type of formal interpersonal relationship is industrial relations. They are regulated by the labor code - a list of laws establishing the rights and obligations of the employee and employer. Thus, the employee is assigned the following responsibilities:

  • Arrive at your workplace on time;
  • Perform official duties;
  • Observe safety precautions at work;
  • Work according to a schedule, at strictly allotted times (standard working day is 8 hours).


The director has the right to punish a worker for failure to comply with rules, duties, and job descriptions. The first time he may limit himself to a verbal warning, the next time a fine, reprimand, or dismissal from work will follow.

At the same time, in addition to the duties, the employee has certain rights:

  • For timely payment of wages;
  • Providing regular leave;
  • Providing sick leave;
  • Receiving bonuses for hard work and exceeding production standards.

Industrial relations are regulated on the basis of law; the main document of an employee is his work book.

The essence of legal relations in the family

Obligations between citizens are concluded at the moment when two people register their marriage with the registry office, adopt a child, or paternity is established.

The legal nature of family legal relations has a number of characteristic features, among which the following stand out:

  • A mandatory aspect of such interactions is a family connection. This category includes children, spouses, parents and other close relatives;
  • Legal facts of family legal relations arise in the event of marriage, establishment of maternity or paternity.

The emergence and change of family legal relations occurs in connection with any changes in such relations, and from the moment of marriage, each spouse receives the right to receive a share in all property acquired during the marriage.

The child also receives similar rights, and this is the answer to the question of what is the essence and features of family legal relations.

The key difference between these relationships is that their transfer, sale or gift to third parties is excluded - all rights belong only to the direct participants in the process.

Basic rules of communication

Interpersonal relationships are regulated by the rules of etiquette, morality and ethics. Etiquette prescribes norms of behavior in society, including in the process of interpersonal interaction and communication.


The rules of communication culture are taught from early childhood. This is necessary to create mutual respect and favorable attitudes in society. General rules of communication include: expressing greetings to people you know, a friendly, quiet timbre of voice, respectful attitude towards the interlocutor (you cannot interrupt him, you must give him the opportunity to speak).

The rules for communicating with peers are different from communicating with older people. You can address people of equal age and familiarity with “You.” It is customary to address seniors, higher ranks, and strangers as “You.”

Business and personal relationships

What is the difference between business and personal relationships between people? By business is meant a relationship determined by common corporate interests and Such relationships can take place between employees of the same level, and in the context of the hierarchical ladder of the corporation. The purpose of a business relationship is the result of a shared work effort without reference to the value of the communication process itself.

Personal relationships are built differently. As a rule, they arise between close people, and their motivation is within, and not outside, the communication process itself. In other words, in the process of personal relationships, people are more interested in each other than as a result of their connection.

The role of feelings

All contacts are established on the basis of feelings towards others. They can be both positive and negative. First feelings are based on the external data of an acquaintance and only over time personal qualities and character traits are assessed.

factors can influence the distortion of feelings :

  • inability to distinguish true intentions from motivation;
  • the ability to objectively evaluate a new acquaintance;
  • determination of attitudes imposed independently or by society;
  • stereotypes;
  • forcing events, inability to fully understand a person;
  • not accepting other people's opinions.
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